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Film: Beyond the Black Rainbow (Cosmatos, 2012, 110 min.)
Your job is not to “figure out what happened” in the film, or to try to resolve the uncertainty the film leaves you with. Instead, assume that the film’s uncertainty is intentional. Why? What does it accomplish in its lack of clear resolution, storyline, or meaning? Sit with the strangeness of the film, and analyze it as a strange film—don’t try to remove or explain away its strangeness. Let the readings be your guide. I want to see you thinking creatively and weirdly, and I want to see you making bold arguments.V
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Routledge Classics contains the very best of Routledge
publishing over the past century or so, books that have,
by popular consent, become established as classics in
their field. Drawing on a fantastic heritage of innovative
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imprints, this series makes available in attractive,
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Edmund
Burke
A Philosophical Enquiry into
the Sublime and Beautiful
modern times.
For a complete list oftitles visit
www.routledge.com/classics
Edited with an introduction and notes by
James T. Boulton, Emeritus Professor of English
Studies, Birmingham University and Fellow of the
British Academy
London and New York
S s
This edition first published 1958
by Routledge and Kegan Paul
First published in Routledge Classics 2008
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Contents
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© 1958, 2008, James T. Boulton
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Editor’s Preface
ix
Editor’s Introduction
xi
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VII
Acknowledgments
Composition and Publication
IV
XI
On Taste
xxiii
The Sublime and Beautiful
xxxvi
Influence ofthe Enquiry
Ixxxi
Note on the Text
cxxix
Burke’s Enquiry
Preface to the First Edition
1
Preface to the Second Edition
3
Contents
Text
7
12
Appendix: A List of Editions ofthe Enquiry
Published During Burke’s Lifetime
176
In DEX
i8i
38
the sublime and beautiful
OF THE SUBLIME
dUoTBHEv re ydcp (ftpiva xspnopai, aXXoTed’alxe
nauopai- ai^tjpdq 8i Kopoq Kpuepoio yooio. ®
SECTION Vli
St\ in short intervals ofpleasing woe,
Ofthe SUBLIME
Regardful ofthefriendly dues I owe,
I to the glorious dead,for ever dear,
Indulge the tribute ofa grateful tear.^
Hom. Od. 4.
On the other hand, when we recover our health, when we escape an
oTcTstom
° ° “hese
,4 from that smooth and voluptuous satisfaction which
Ae modTfi
bestows.The delight which arises from
inirsofHT””‘
in Its solid, strong, and severe nature.
P™™ “‘bence it sprung,
SECTION VI
Ofthe passions which belong to SELF-PRESERVATION
Most of the ideas which are capable of making a powerful impression
on the mind, whether simply of Pain or Pleasure or of theTodmc”
aons of those, may be reduced very nearly to these two heads sdf-
presenation and s^iety; to the ends of one or the other of which ali Tur
pr^slrvation f
dmh. fill
the mind
with strongP””emotions
lifendiness,
and health
Lth
fiTthe’
“””f>’
“”””S”-of
Thehorror;
ideas ofbutpoin,
and
ough they put us in a capacity of being affected with pleasure, they
fort vvfoch
“h-Tare””P””®'”””
the simple
enjoyment.The
passions
therefom
conversantbyabout
the preservation
of L
individual,
passions ° °
‘Odyssey, IV, 100-103.

Pope, Odyssey, IV, 127-30.
most powerful ofall the
Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger,
that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about
terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source
of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion which
the mind is capable of feeling.'” When danger
or pain press too nearly, they are incapable of giving any delight, and
are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifica
tions, they may be, and they are delightful, as we every day experience.
The cause of this I shall endeavour to investigate hereafter.
SECTION VIII
Ofthe passions which belong to SOCIETY
The other head under which I class our passions, is that ofsociety, which
may be divided into two sorts. I. The society of the sexes, which answers
the purposes of propagation; and next, that more general society, which
we have with men and with other animals, and which we may in some
sort be said to have even with the inanimate world. The passions
belonging to the preservation of the individual, turn wholly on pain
and danger; those which belong to generation, have their origin in gratifi
cations and pleasures; the pleasure most directly belonging to this pur
pose is ofa lively character, rapturous and violent, and confessedly the
highest pleasure ofsense; yet the absence ofthis so great an enjoyment,
scarce amounts to an uneasiness; and except at particular times, I do
not think it affects at all. When men describe in what manner they are
affected by pain and danger; they do not dwell on the pleasure of
health and the comfort of security, and then lament the loss of these
satisfactions: the whole turns upon the actual pains and horrors which
they endure. But if you listen to the complaints ofa forsaken lover, you
observe, that he insists largely on the pleasures which he enjoyed or
hoped to enjoy, and on the perfection of the object of his desires; it is
the loss which is always uppermost in his mind.’^ The violent effects
produced by love, which has sometimes been even wrought up to
madness, is no objection to the rule which we seek to establish. When
men have suffered their imaginations to be long affected with any idea.
It so wholly engrosses them as to shut out by degrees almost every
other, and to break down every partition of the mind which would
‘Mm 744 Burke was intimately acquainted with a “forsaken lover” whose “loss” resulted
m suicide (Samuels, Early Life, pp. 50-2).
PASSIONS BELONGING TO SELF-PRESERVATION
confine it. Any idea is sufficient for the purpose, as is evident from the
infinite variety of causes which give rise to madness: but this at most
can only prove, that the passion of love is capable of producing very
extraordinary effects, not that its extraordinary emotions have any
connection with positive pain.
SECTION IX
The final cause ofthe difference between the passions
belonging to SELF-PRESERVATION, and those which regard
the SOCIETY ofthe SEXES
The final cause of the difference in character between the passions
which regard self-preservation, and those which are directed to the
multiplication of the species, will illustrate the foregoing remarks yet
further; and it is, I imagine, worthy of observation even upon its own
account. As the performance of our duties of every kind depends upon
hfe, and the performing them with vigour and efficacy depends upon
health, we are very strongly affected with whatever threatens the
destruction of either; but as we were not made to acquiesce in life and
health, the simple enjoyment of them is not attended with any real
pleasure, lest satisfied with that, we should give ourselves over to”
indolence and inaction. On the other hand, the generation of mankind
is a great purpose, and it is requisite that men should be animated to
the pursuit of it by some great incentive. It is therefore attended with a
very high pleasure; but as it is by no means designed to be our constant
business, it is not fit that the absence of this pleasure should be
attended with any considerable pain. The difference between men and
brutes in this point,seems to be remarkable. Men are at all times pretty
equally disposed to the pleasures oflove, because they are to be guided
by reason in the time and manner of indulging them. Had any great
pain arisen from the want of this satisfaction, reason. I am afraid,
would find great difficulties in the performance of its office. But brutes
who obey laws, in the execution of which their own reason has but
little share, have their stated seasons; at such times it is not improbable
give ourselves over to] give up ourselves to
41
SECTION I
Ofthe passion caused by the SUBLIME
The passion caused by the great and sublime in nature, when those
causes operate most powerfully, is Astonishment; and astonishment is
that state of the soul,in which all its motions are suspended, with some
degree of horror.* In this case the mind is so entirely filled with its
object, that it cannot entertain any other, nor by consequence reason on
that object which employs it. Hence arises the great power of the
sublime, that far from being produced by them, it anticipates our
reasonings, and hurries us on by an irresistible force. Astonishment, as
I have said, is the effect of the sublime in its highest degree; the inferior
effects are admiration, reverence and respect.
SECTION II
TERROR
No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and
reasoning as fear. -j-For fear being an apprehension of pain or death, it
operates in a manner that resembles actual pain. Whatever therefore is
terrible, with regard to sight, is sublime too, whether this cause of
terror, be endued with greatness of dimensions or not; for it is impos
sible to look on any thing as trifling, or contemptible, that may be
dangerous. There are many animals, who though far from being large.
* Part 1, sections 3, 4, 7.
f Part 4,sections 3, 4, 5, 6.
58
THE SUBLIME AND BEAUTIFUL
are yet capable of raising ideas of the sublime, because they are con
sidered as objects of terror. As serpents and poisonous animals of
almost all kinds. And” to things of great dimensions, if we annex an’
adventitious idea of terror, they become without comparison greater. A
level plain’ of a vast extent on land, is certainly no mean idea; the
prospect ofsuch a plain may be as extensive as a prospect of die ocean;
OBSCURITY
SECTION ill
OBSCURITY
indifferently the modes of astonishment or admiration and those of
To make any thing very terrible, obscurityf seems in general to be
necessary. When we know the full extent of any danger, when we can
accustom our eyes to it, a great deal of the apprehension vanishes.
Every one will be sensible of this, who considers how gready night
adds to our dread,in all cases of danger, and how much the notions of
ghosts and goblins, of which none can form clear ideas, affect minds,
which give credit to the popular tales concerning such sorts of beings.
Those despotic governments, which are founded on the passions of
men,and principally upon the passion offear, keep their cliief as much
as may be from the public eye. The policy has been the same in many
is in greek. The Romans used the verb stupeo, a term which strongly
cases ofreligion. Almost all the heathen temples were dark.^ Even in the
barbarous temples of the Americans at this day, they keep their idol in a
dark part of the hut, which is consecrated to his worship. For this
but can it ever fill the mind with any thing so great as the ocean itself?
several causes, but it is owing to none more than
this,” that the ocean is an object of no small terror.’
” And] Even
‘an] any
‘A loel plain] An e’en plain
‘itself? This] itself? this
” than this,] than to this.
‘Literary Magazine. II. 185 (referring initially to p. 57. II.. 3-4): “But astonishment is
perhaps that state of the soul, when the powers of the mind are suspended with wonder.
Horror may tincture it. and love may enliven it. … Longinus’s account ofthe sublime is.
we apprehend, very just: it is not built on any single passion; though they may all serve to
inflame that pathetic enthusiasm, which in conjunction with an exalted thought, serves
to hurry away the mind wth great rapidity from itself Terror is therefore a great addi
tion. and in like manner so are all the other passions, grief, love. rage, indignation
ambition, compassion etc.”
purpose too the druids performed all their ceremonies in the bosom of
the darkest woods, and in the shade of the oldest and most spreading
oaks. No person seems better to” have understood the secret of height
ening, or of setting terrible things, ifI may use the expression, in their
strongest light by the force of a judicious obscurity, than Milton. His
description of Deadi in the second book is admirably studied; it is
astonishing with what a gloomy pomp, with what a significant and
expressive uncertainty of strokes and colouring he has finished the
portrait of the king of terrors.
The other shape,
Ifshape it might be called that shape had none
Distinguishable, in member,joint, or limb;
Or substance might be called that shadow seemed,
For each seemed either; black he stood as night;
Fierce as tenfuries; terrible as hell;
f Part 4, sections 14, IS, 16.
“seems better to] seems to
■ Cf. F. Hutcheson,An Inquir}’ into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725), p. 76:”The
cunning of the Heathen Priests might make such obscure Places the Scene of the fictitious
Appearances of their Deitys.”
59
60
THE SUBLIME AND BEAUTIFUL
THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED
And shook a deadly dart. What seemed his head
The likeness ofa kingly crown had on.^
In this description all is dark, uncertain, confused, terrible, and sublime
to the last degree.
SECTION IV
Ofthe difference between CLEARNESS and OBSCURITY with
SECTION [W/f
The same subject continued
There are two verses in Horace’s art of poetry that seem to contradict
this opinion,for which reason I shall take a little more pains in clearing
it up. The verses are,
Segnius inritant animos demissa per aurem
Quam quce sunt oculis subjectafidelibus.^
regard to the passions
It IS one thing to make an idea clear, and another to make it affectino to
the imagination. If I make a drawing of a palace, or a temple, or a
landscape. I present a very clear idea of those objects; but then (allow
ing for the effect of imitation which is something) my picture can at
most affect only as the palace, temple,or landscape would have affected
m the reality. On the other hand, the most lively and spirited verbal
description I can give, raises a very obscure and imperfect idea ofsuch
objects; but then it is in my power to raise a stronger emotion by the
description than I could do by the best painting. This experience con-
standy evinces. The proper manner of conveying the affections of the
mmd from one to another, is by words; there is a great insufficiency in
imagery from being absolutely necessary to an influence upon the
ail other methods of communication; and^^ so far is a clearness of
passions, that they may be considerably operated upon without pre-
senting any image at all. by certain sounds adapted to that purpose; of
v^ich we have a sufficient proof in the acknowledged and powerful
effects ofinstrumental music. In reality a great clearness helps but litde
towards affecting the passions, as it is in some sort an enemy to all
enthusiasms whatsoever.
On this the abbe du Bos founds a criticism, wherein he gives painting
the preference to poetry in the article of moving the passions; princi
pally on account of the greater deaniess of the ideas it represents.^ I
believe this excellent judge was led into this mistake (ifit be a mistake)
by his system,to which he found it more conformable than I imagine it
will be found to experience. I know several who admire and love
painting, and yet who regard the objects of their admiration in that art,
with coolness enough,in comparison of that warmth with which they
are animated by affecting pieces of poetry or rhetoric. Among the
common sort of people. I never could perceive that painting had much
influence on their passions. It is true that the best sorts of painting, as
well as the best sorts of poetry, are not much understood in that sphere.
But it is most certain, that their passions are very strongly roused by a
fanatic preacher, or by the ballads of Chevy-chase.^ or the children in
the wood, and by other little popular poems and tales that are ciurent
in that rank of life. I do not know of any paintings, bad or good, that
produce the same effect. So that poetry with all its obscurity, has a
more general as well as a more powerful dominion over the passions
than the other art. And I think there are reasons in nature why the
obscure idea, when properly conveyed, should be more affecting than
the clear. It is our ignorance of things that causes all our admiration,
“SECTION [IV].] SECTION V.
” passions; principally …of] passions; and that on account principally of

and] nay
‘ Paradiselost. II, 666-73 (misquoted).
De Aite Poetica, 11. 180-1.
‘Reflexions Critiques Sur La Poesic et Sur La Peinture (Paris, 6th edn., 1755),I, 416 fF.
^ Addison had written on Chevy Chose in Spectator Nos. 70 and 74.
61
64 TH E SUBLI M E AN D BEAUTI FU L
POWER
it not. wrapt up in the shades of its own incomprehensible darkness,
more aweful. more striking, more terrible, than the liveliest descrip
tion. than the clearest painting could possibly represent it? When
painters have attempted to give us clear representations of these very
fanciful and terrible ideas, they have I think almost always failed; inso
much that I have been at a loss, in all the pictures I have seen of hell,
whether the painter did not intend something ludicrous. Several paint
ers have handled a subject of this kind, with a view of assembling as
many horrid phantoms as their imagination could suggest; but all the
designs I have chanced to meet of the temptations ofSt. Anthony, were
rather a sort of odd wild grotesques, than any diing capable of pro
ducing a serious passion.'” In all these subjects poetry is very happy. Its
apparitions, its chimeras, its harpies, its allegorical figures, are grand
and affecting; and though Virgil’s Fame.” and Homer’s Discord.’^ are
obscure, they are magnificent figures. These figures in painting would
be clear enough, but I fear they might become ridiculous.
SECTION V
POWER
Besides these things which directly suggest the idea of danger, and those
which produce a similar effect from a mechanical cause, I know of
nothing sublime which is not some modification of power. And this
branch rises as naturally as the otlier two branches, from terror, the
common stock of every diing that is sublime. The idea ofpower at first
view, seems of the class of these indifferent ones, which may equally
belong to pain or to pleasure. But in reality, the affection arising from
the idea of vast power, is extremely remote from that neutral character.
For first, we must remember,* that the idea of pain, in its highest
* Part 1. section 7.
The Temptations of St. Anthony” was a popular subject for grotesque treatment
among Dutch, Flemish, and Spanish painters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
(e.g.Brueghel,Teniers,Ribera).There is also a version by Salvator Rosa.(See A.B.Jameson,
Sacred and Legendary Art, 1848, II, 381-3.)
degree, is much stronger than the highest degree of pleasure; and that
it preserves the same superiority through all the subordinate grad
ations. From hence it-is, that where the chances for equal degrees of
suffering or enjoyment are in any sort equal, the idea of the suffering
must always be prevalent. And indeed the ideas of pain, and above all
of death, are so very affecting, that whilst we remain in the presence of
whatever is supposed to have the power ofinflicting either, it is impos
sible to be perfectly free from terror. Again, we know by experience,
that for the enjoyment of pleasure, no great efforts of power are at all
necessary; nay we know,that such efforts would go a great way towards
destroying our satisfaction: for pleasure must be stolen, and not forced
upon us; pleasure follows the will; and therefore we are generally
affected with it by many things of a force greatly inferior to our own.
But pain is always inflicted by a power in some way superior, because
we never submit to pain willingly. So that strength, violence, pain and
terror, are ideas that rush in upon the mind together. Look at a man,or
any other animal of prodigious strength, and what is your idea before
reflection? Is it that this strength will be subservient to you. to your
ease, to your pleasure, to your interest in any sense? No; the emotion
you feel is, lest this enormous strength should be employed to the
purposes of* rapine and destruction. That power derives all its sublim
ity from the terror with which it is generally accompanied, will appear
evidently from its effect in the very few cases, in which it may be
possible to strip a considerable degree of strength of its ability to hurt.
When you do this, you spoil it of every thing sublime, and it immedi
ately becomes contemptible. An ox is a creature of vast strength; but he
is an innocent creature, extremely serviceable, and not at all dangerous;
for which reason the idea of an ox is by no means grand. A bull is
strong too; but his strength is of another kind; often very destructive,
seldom (at least amongst us) of any use in our business; the idea of a
bull is therefore great, and it has frequently a place in sublime descrip
tions. and elevating comparisons. Let us look at another strong animal
in the two distinct lights in which we may consider him. The horse in
the light of an useful beast, fit for the plough, the road, the draft, in
every social useful light the horse has nothing of the sublime; but is it
“Aeneid, IV. 173fr.
Iliad, IV, 440-S.(Longinus uses this reference as an illustration: On the Sublime, IX.)
* Vide Part 3. section 21.
65
66
THE SUBLIME AND BEAUTIFUL
POWER
thus that we are affected with him. whose neck is doathed with thunder the
alary of whose nostrils is terrible, who swolloweth the ground with fierceness and rage,
neither believeth that it is the sound of the trumpet?” In this description the
useful character of die horse entirely disappears, and the terrible and
sublime blaze out together. We have continually about us animals of a
strength that is considerable, but not pernicious. Amongst these we
never look for die sublime: it comes upon us in the gloomy forest, and
m the howling wilderness, in the form of the lion, the tiger, the pan
der. or rhinoceros. Whenever strength is only useful, and employed
tor our benefit or our pleasure, then it is never sublime;for nothing can
act agreeably to us. that does not act in conformity to our will; but to
act agreeably to our will, it must be subject to us; and therefore can
never be the cause of a grand and commanding conception. The
escription of the wild ass. in Job. is worked up into no small sublim
ity merely by insisting on his freedom, and his setting mankind at
dehance; otherwise the description of such an animal could have had
nothing noble in it. Who hath loosed (says he) the bands of the wild ass? whose
ouse I have made the wilderness, and the barren land his dwellings. He scorneth the
multitude of the city, neither regardeth he the voice of the driver. The range of the
mountains is his pasture.’ » The magnificent description of the unicorn and
of leviathan in the same book, is fuU of the same heightening circum
stances. Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee? canst thou bind the unicorn with his
band in the furrow? wilt thou trust him because his strength is great? Canst thou
draw out leviathan with an hook? will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him
for a servant for ever? shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him? ” In short,
wheresoever we find strength, and in what light soever we look upon
power, we shall all along observe the sublime the concomitant of ter
ror. and contempt the attendant on a strength that is subservient and
innoxious. The race of dogs in many of their kinds, have generally a
competent degree of strength and swiftness; and they exert these, and
other valuable qualities which they possess, greatly to our convenience
to prove his conten
tion that Job IS adapted in every respect to the incitementthisofpassage
terror; and
. . . is universally
and pleasure. Dogs are indeed the most social, affectionate, and amiable
animals of the whole brute creation; but love approaches much nearer
to contempt than is commonly imagined; and accordingly, though we
caress dogs, we borrow from them an appellation of the most despicable
kind, when we employ terms of reproach; and this appellation is the
common mark of the last vileness and contempt in every language.
Wolves have not more strength than several species of dogs; but on
account of their unmanageable fierceness, the idea of a wolf is not
despicable; it is not excluded from grand descriptions and similitudes.
Thus we are affected by strength, which is natural power. The power
which arises from institution in kings and commanders, has the same
connection with terror. Sovereigns are frequentiy addressed with the
title of dreod majesty. And it may be observed, that young persons litde
acquainted with the world, and who have not been used to approach
men in power, are commonly struck with an awe which takes away the
free use of their faculties. When I prepared m)’ seat in the street (says Job) the
young men saw me, and hid themselves.’^ Indeed so natural is this timidity with
regard to power, and so strongly does it inhere in our constitution, that
very few are able to conquer it. but by mixing much in the business of
the great world, or by using no small violence to their natural disposi
tions.’^ I know some people are of opinion, that no awe. no degree of
terror, accompanies the idea of power, and have hazarded to affirm, that
we can contemplate the idea of God himself without any such emotion.
I purposely avoided when I first considered this subject, to introduce
the idea of tliat great and tremendous being, as an example in an
argument so light as this; though it frequently occurred to me. not as
an objection to. but as a strong confirmation of my notions in this
matter. I hope, in what I am going to say. I shall avoid presumption,
where it is almost impossible for any mortal to speak with strict pro
priety. I say then, that whilst we consider the Godhead merely as he is
an object of the understanding, which forms a complex idea of power.
‘”Job. XXIX, 7b-8a.
animated with the true spirit ofsublimity” (Lrctureson the Sacred Poetry of the Hebreivs. transl G
” Monthly Roiov, XVI, 475 n.: “It is certain, we can have the most sublime ideas of the
Deity, without imagining him a God of terror. Whatever raises our esteem of an object
described, must be a powerful source of sublimity; and esteem is a passion nearly allied
” Ibid.. XXXIX. 9a. 10a. ] la; XLI. la. 4. 9b.
to love: Our astonishment at the sublime as often proceeds from an increased love, as
Gregory. 1787. II. 428. 424).
Job, XXXIX. 5b-8a (misquoted).
from an increased fear.”
67
68
THE SUBLIME AND BEAUTIFUL
POWER
msdom,justice, goodness, all stretched to a degree far exceeding the
bounds ofour comprehension, whilst we consider the divinity in this
re ned and abstracted light, the imagination and passions are litde or
nothing affected. But because we are bound by the condition of our
nature to ascend to these pure and intellectual ideas, through the
inedium of sensible images, and to judge of these divine qualities by
eir evident acts and exertions, it becomes extremely hard to dis
entangle our idea of the cause from the effect by which we are led to
know It. Thus when we contemplate the Deity, his attributes and their
operation coming united on the mind,form a sort of sensible image,
an as such are capable of affecting the imagination. Now,though in a
just idea of the Deity, perhaps none of his attributes are predominant
yet to our imagination, his power is by far the most striking. Some
reflection,some comparing is necessary to satisfy us of his wisdom his
justice, and his goodness; to be struck with his power,it is only ne«ssary that we should open our eyes.But whilst we contemplate so vast an
object, under the arm,as it were,ofalmighty power,and invested upon
every side with omnipresence, we shrink into the minuteness of our
own nature,and are,in a manner,annihilated before him.And though a
consideration of his other attributes may relieve in some measure our
apprehensions; yet no conviction of the justice with which it is exer-
ased,nor the mercy with which it is tempered,can wholly remove the
terror that naturally arises from a force which nothing can withstand If
Hunc sofem, et Stellas, et decedentia certis
Tempora momentis, sunt quiformidim nulla
Imbuti spectenty
Lucretius is a poet not to be suspected of giving way to superstitious
terrors; yet when he supposes the whole mechanism of nature laid
open by the master of his philosophy, his transport on this magnificent
view which he has represented in the colours of such bold and lively
poetry, is overcast with a shade of secret dread and horror.
His tibi me rebus qucedam Divina voluptas
Percipit, adque horror, quod sic Natura tua w
Tarn manifesto patet ex omni parte retecta.
But the scripture alone can supply ideas answerable to the majesty of
this subject. In the scripture, wherever God is represented as appearing
or speaking, every thing terrible in nature is called up to heighten the
awe and solemnity of the divine presence. The psalms,and the prophet
ical books, are crouded with instances of this kind. The earth shook (says
the psalmist) the heavens also dropped at the presence of the Lord.^’ And what is
glorious fabric of the universe.
remarkable, the painting preserves the same character, not only when
he is supposed descending to take vengeance upon the wicked,but even
when he exerts the like plenitude of power in acts of beneficence to
mankind. Tremble, thou earth! at the presence of the Lord; at the presence of the God of
Jacob; which turned the rock into standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters! It
were endless to enumerate all the passages both in the sacred and pro
fane writers, which establish the general sentiment of mankind, con
cerning die inseparable union of a sacred and reverential awe, with our
ideas of the divinity. Hence the common maxim, primos in orbe deos fecit
timor.^^ This maxim may be, as I believe it is, false with regard to the
origin of religion. The maker of the maxim saw how inseparable these
whklT”emphasizes the praise of God’s power in Hebrew
on this psalm
at the
ofa lecture
which
poetry:
“Itend
celebrates
the
omniscience of the Deity, and the incomparable art and design displayed in the forma
“Epistles, I, vi, 3-S.
De Rerun Natura, III, 28-30 (misquoted).
Psalms, LXVIII,8 (misquoted).
we rejoice, we rejoice with trembling; and even whilst we are receiving
enefits, we cannot but shudder at a power which can confer benefits of
such mighty importance. When the prophet David contemplated the
wonders ofwisdom and power, which are displayed in the oeconomy of
man he seems to be struck with a sort of divine horror, and cries out
feorfully and wonderfully am I made!”An heathen poet has a sentiment of a
similar nature; Horace looks upon it as the last effort of philosophical
fortitude to behold without terror and amazement, this immense and
tion of the human body” (Lectures, II, 283).
“Ibid., CXIV, 7-8 (misquoted).
“Cf. Statius, Thebaid, III, 661.
69
70
the sublime and beautiful
VASTNESS
ideas were, witliout considering that the notion ofsome great power
must be always precedent to our dread ofit. But this dread must neces-
united, at the mouth of hell! where before he unlocks the secrets of the
mind. It IS on this principle that true religion has, and must have so
astonished at the boldness of his own design.
nX^
generally
nothmg”TT
else butf
fear to support them.”b”‘
Before thereligions
Christianhave
religion
had
as It were,hmnanized the idea ofthe divinity,and brought itsLewha^
orM!to°h””
“I” ofit, and only something.” TheTbe
of
Plato have something
otherfollowers
writers
of pagan antiquity, whether poets or philosophers, nothing at all. And
ey who consider with what infinite attention, by what a disregard of
every perishable object, through what long habits ofpiety and contem-
Deity, wiU easily perceive, that it is not the first, the most natural, and
the tnost strilang effect which proceeds from that idea. Thus we have
raced power through its several gradations unto the highest of all
where our imagination is finally lost; and we find terror quite through
out the progress,its inseparable companion,and growing along with it
as far as we can possibly trace them. Now as power is undoubtedly a
capital source ofthe sublime, this wiU point out evidently from whence
1 s energy is derived, and to what class ofideas we ought to unite it.>
great deep, he seems to be seized with a rehgious horror, and to retire
Dii quibus imperium est animarum, umbrceq; silentes!
Et Chaos, et Phlegethon!loca nocte silentia late?
Sit mihifas audita ioqui!sit numine vestro
Pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas!
Ibant obscuri, sola sub nocte, per umbram,
Perque domos Ditis’^ vacuas, et inania regna.’^
Ye subterraneous gods! whose aweful sway
The gliding ghosts, and silent shades obey;
O Chaos hoar! and Phlegethon profound!
Whose solemn empire stretches wide around; .
Cive me, ye great tremendous powers, to tell
Ofscenes and wonders in the depth ^ ofhell;
Give me your mighty secrets to display
From those black realms ofdarkness to the day.
Pitt
26
Obscure they went through dreary shades that led
Along the waste dominions ofthe dead.
Dryden.^’
SECTION VI
PRIVATION
SECTION VII
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