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c.) Add responses directly to it
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understand that plagiarism is an act of intellectual dishonesty. I understand it is academically unethical and unacceptable to
do any of the following acts of which I will be immediately expelled without refund:

To submit an essay written in whole or in part by another student as if it were my own.
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the original source.
To restate a clever phrase verbatim from another writer without acknowledging the source.
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the answers on my own paper to another student through verbal or textual communication, sign language, or other
means of storing and communicating information–including electronic devices, recording devices, cellular telephones,
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To copy another student’s work and submit the work as if it were the product of my own labor.
ASSIGNMENT: Watch the following video and take notes. Share your notes below
US History Overview 1: Jamestown to the Civil War
ASSIGNMENT: Watch the following video and take notes. Share your notes below
US History overview 2: Reconstruction to the Great Depression
READ: UNITED STATES IN BRIEF – (it’s a PDF with your class downloads)
The textbook “United States in Brief” has been designed especially as a quick overview of our history. It is
especially helpful for English Language Learners. You will use this text to address the assignments below.
This is an excellent way for you to get a snapshot of America’s history. Let’s get started.
ASSIGNMENTS: Complete the “QUIZ” section for each of the CHAPTERS 1 – 7 and place the questions and
answers below.
1.) Early America 2.) Colonial Period 3.) The Road to Independence 4.) Revolution 5.) Forming a
National Government 6.) Early Years, Westward Expansion, and Regional Differences 7.) Conflict within
the United States
American Revolution
Support Videos: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/road-torevolution/the-american-revolution/v/the-seven-years-war-part-1
ASSIGNMENT: Using the various documents presented in your text, the lectures above, and YOUR OWN
independent research, respond to,
1.) Discuss the Seven Yeas War
2.) Discuss the Boston Massacre and Boston tea Party
3.) What were “The Intolerable Acts”?
4.) What was the intent of the Declaration of Independence?
5.) “What made the American Revolution such a monumental event”? (1 page double spaced size 12 Times
New Roman font – with direct citations)
READ: UNITED STATES IN BRIEF – (it’s a PDF with your class downloads)
The textbook “United States in Brief” has been designed especially as a quick overview of our history. It is
especially helpful for English Language Learners. You will use this text to address the assignments below.
This is an excellent way for you to get a snapshot of America’s history. Let’s get started.
ASSIGNMENTS: Complete the “QUIZ” section for each of the CHAPTERS 8 -14 and place the questions and
answers below.
8.) Civil War and Post-War Reconstruction 9.) Growth and Transformation 10.) Discontent and Reform
11.) World War I, 1920s Prosperity, and the Great Depression
12.) The New Deal and World War II 13.)
The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam 14.) Cultural Change 1950–1980
ASSIGNMENT: Watch the following video and take notes. Share your notes below
US History overview 3: WWII to Vietnam
ASSIGNMENT: Watch the following video and take notes. Share your notes below
Appomattox and Lincoln’s assassination
ASSIGNMENT: Watch the following video and take notes. Share your notes below
When Capitalism is great and not-so-great
ASSIGNMENT: READ YOUR WORLD WAR I DOWNLOAD: Based on the reading, what were 2 major causes of
World War I; when and why did the U.S. get involved, and what lasting impact has the war had on society as
a whole?
WORLD WAR II STORIES: Read World War II Stories – select 1 story (testimonies): From the story you have
read, what is your impression of the World War II? Is the veteran proud to have been in the war? Why/why
https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/euro-hist/cold-war/v/korean-war-overview 1
page typed summary highlighting: what provoked the war, who were enemies and allies, who were the
leaders/heads, what military strikes took place, what was the outcome, and what was the lasting impact.
Vietnam War: Read the DOWNLOAD “Vietnam War: The Strategic Importance” and watch
VIETNAM WAR: Based on the author’s opinion, why was the Vietnam War important?
HEARTS AND MINDS – Vietnam War Footage
Conduct independent study and locate Vietnam Footage (videos) for your report – here is a
link to get you started
1.) http://www.military.com/video/operations-and-strategy/vietnam-war/vietnam-
2.) Summarize your analysis, judgment, thoughts, “wonderings” and feelings in two full pages.
3.) WAR IN IRAQ: Read your download: Based on the reading, was the War in Iraq a war that was
supported by the majority of Americans? Why did America choose to go to war? Was this war
necessary? Support.
Articles of Confederation https://www.coursera.org/lecture/chemerinsky-onconstitutional-law-structure-of-government/from-the-articles-of-confederation-tothe-constitution-S9iEb
The Structure of the Constitution https://www.coursera.org/lecture/chemerinskyon-constitutional-law-structure-of-government/from-the-articles-ofconfederation-to-the-constitution-S9iEb
Allocating Power https://www.coursera.org/lecture/chemerinsky-onconstitutional-law-structure-of-government/allocating-power-bkzm6
The Bill of Rights https://www.coursera.org/lecture/chemerinsky-onconstitutional-law-structure-of-government/the-bill-of-rights-lwcHx
Why a Written Constitution https://www.coursera.org/lecture/chemerinsky-onconstitutional-law-structure-of-government/why-a-written-constitution-aUife

Types of Government
The chart from the link above clearly defines EACH type of governments BASED ON…
Economy – Name and describe the 3 types
Politics– Name and describe the 7 types
Authority – Name and describe the 4 types
1.) List the type of Government
2.) From a “government” point of view, list one positive result of governing this way.
3.) From a citizens point of view, list one negative result of being governed by that type.
US Constitution
Full text of the US Constitution: http://constitutionus.com/
Reading of the Constitution: http://www.cspanclassroom.org/Video/1506/US+House+Reading+of+the+Constitution.aspx
Support video series: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/road-torevolution/creating-a-nation/v/the-articles-of-confederation
Using the links embedded in your United States History Text, preview both the Articles of Confederation
and the United States Constitution.
1.) Why is it, do you suppose, the Articles of Confederation was not written with the same strength and
tone as the United States Constitution?
2.) The “Articles” are often referred to as weak; however, this document was indeed strong in at least
one way. Decide on the strength of the “Articles” and explain your point of view.
3.) The US Constitution cannot be changed, only amendments added? What is the significance of this?
Provide an example using an actual constitutional amendment.
4.) The Bill of Rights is remarked to be our “Freedom” law; how so and is this Bill complete? Explain
5.) What is the basic structure of the Constitution?
6.) What are the roles and functions of the three branches of government?
7.) How do separation of powers and checks and balances affect the U.S. Government?
8.) What are the rights, liberties, and responsibilities of U.S. citizens?
9.) How is the Constitution a living document?
10.) Case study: Children who belonged to an unpopular religion sold their church’s magazines on the
streets. The police stopped them because they were violating a state law forbidding children under
the age of 12 to sell periodicals of any kind on the street. Leaders of the church said the police had
violated their constitutional right to religious freedom. Do you agree? Support
DIRECTIONS: BOLD your answers
01. What was the name of the first document of national government / constitution for the United States?
a) Mayflower Compact c) Articles of Confederation
b) Declaration of Independence d) Bill of Rights
02. In what year was the current constitution written?
a) 1776 b) 1781 c) 1787 d) 1793
03. The current constitution was written in the late 1700s in order to [ a) strengthen OR b) weaken]
the central government of the United States.
04. The Constitutional Convention that wrote the current constitution was held in:
a) Boston b) New York City c) Philadelphia d) Washington DC
05. Who is considered the “Father of the Constitution” for his efforts in the writing of the current
a) Thomas Jefferson b) James Madison c) James Monroe d) George Washington
06. The “Great Compromise” at the Constitutional Convention :
a) allowed the states to keep certain specific powers / responsibilities.
b) created a two “branch” or house national legislature.
c) gave full citizenship rights to slaves.
d) resulted in the writing of the Bill of Rights.
07. What vote of the states was required to “ratify” (adopt) the current constitution?
a) 7/13’s b) 9/13’s c) 13/13’s: unanimous
08. The introduction to the current constitution is known as the:
a) articles b) amendments c) preamble
09. The seven original sections of the current constitution are known as the:
a) articles b) amendments c) preamble
10. The additions / changes made in the current constitution over the years are known as the:
a) articles b) amendments c) preamble
11. How many “additions / changes” have been made in the current constitution over the years?
a) 10 b) 15 c) 22 d) 27 e) 30
12. What is the more “common name” for the first ten amendments to the constitution?
a) Articles of Confederation c) Social Contract
b) Bill of Rights d) Writs of Assistance
13. What is the name for the form or plan of government in which powers are divided among one national
government and many state governments?
a) checks and balances b) federal system c) separation of powers
14. Powers that belong only to our nation’s central government are known as:
a) concurrent powers b) delegated powers c) reserved powers
15. Powers that belong only to the different states are known as:
a) concurrent powers b) delegated powers c) reserved powers
16. Powers that are shared by both the central government and the states are known as:
a) concurrent powers b)delegated powers c) reserved powers
17. The principle that divides powers and duties among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
of a government is known as:
a) checks and balances b) federal system c) separation of powers
18. The principle that gives the legislative, executive, or judicial branches the right to block the misuse of
power by any of the other branches of government is known as:
a) checks and balances b) impeachment process c) judicial review
19. The “technical name” for the type of government established by the current constitution is:
a) democracy b) monarchy c) oligarchy d) republic
20. What is the name given to the procedure for removing an individual from an office / position of power
within the national government?
a) amendment process b) impeachment process c) judicial review
21. Which principle of government allows the federal court system to rule on both the constitutionality
and meaning of a federal law?
a) amendment process b) concurrent powers c) judicial review
22. What is the name for the principle of U.S. government that permits the legislative branch to pass
specific laws to carry out its broadly defined responsibilities?
a) checks and balances b) elastic clause c) reserved powers
23. Which branch of the central government makes / enacts / passes laws?
a) executive b) judicial c) legislative
24. Which branch of the central government enforces laws?
a) executive b) judicial c) legislative
25. Which branch of the central government decides if a law is constitutional?
a) executive b) judicial c) legislative
26. Which branch of government appoints federal judges?
a) executive b) judicial c) legislative
27. Which branch of government accuses and tries (impeaches and convicts) and then removes federal
officials from office?
a) executive b) judicial c) legislative
28. Which government(s) can borrow money?
a) only the federal (central) government b) only the states c) both federal and states
29. Which government(s) can print and coin money? a) federal only b) states only c) Both fed. &
30. Which government(s) can declare war?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c)both federal and states
31. Which government(s) can establish a military (armed forces)?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
32. Which government(s) can tax?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
33. Which government(s) can establish courts?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
34. Which governments(s) set marriage and divorce laws?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
35. Which government(s) sets standard weights and measures?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
36. Which government(s) can create a postal system?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
37. Which government(s) can regulate “intrastate” (within a state) trade and commerce (business)?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
38. Which government(s) can regulate “interstate” (between or among states) trade and commerce?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
39. Which government(s) can “propose” amendments to the Constitution?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
40. Which government(s) can “ratify’ (approve) amendments to the Constitution?
a) only the federal government b) only the states c) both federal and states
41. Which of the following is NOT a check by the legislative branch on the executive branch?
a) The President vetoes a bill passed by Congress.
b) Congress overrides a presidential veto.
c) Congress approves a presidential appointment.
42. Which of the following is NOT a check by the executive branch on the legislative branch?
a) The President calls a special session of Congress.
b) Congress impeaches and tries a President.
c) The President suggests a new law.
43. What is the “official name” of the legislative branch of the federal government?
a) Cabinet b) Congress c) Supreme Court
44. Who officially declares war?
a) Congress b) the President c) the Supreme Court
45. The U.S. Congress is “bicameral.” This means?
a) It contains members from the two major political parties.
b) It has two houses or branches.
46. The U.S. House of Representatives has how many members?
a) 59 b) 100 c) 118 d) 435 e) 538
47. The U.S. Senate has how many members?
a) 59 b) 100 c) 118 d) 435 e) 538
48. Which statement is true?
a) Each state has the same number of U.S. Representatives.
b) Each state has the same number of U.S. Senators.
49. What does “taking the census” mean?
a) Collecting taxes.
b) Assigning different responsibilities to the federal and state governments.
c) Counting the population.
50. How often is the census taken?
a) every year. b) every five years. c) every ten years. d) every twenty years.
51. The term of office of a U.S. Representative is:
a) two years b) four years c) six years d) life
52. The term of office of a U.S. Senator is:
a) two years b) four years c) six years d) life
53. What fraction / percentage of the U.S. Senate is elected every two years?
a) 1/5 (20%) b) 1/4 (25%) c) 1/3 (33 1/3%) d) 1/2 (50%)
54. What is the age requirement for a U.S. Representative?
a) There is no requirement. b) 21 c) 25 d) 30 e) 35
55. What is the age requirement for a U.S. Senator?
a) There is no requirement. b) 21 c) 25 d) 30 e) 35
56. What is the “title” of the presiding officer in the U.S. House of Representatives?
a) Chief Justice b) President Pro Tempore c) Speaker d) Vice-President
57. What is the “title” of the presiding officer in the U.S. Senate?
a) Chief Justice b) President Pro Tempore c) Speaker d) Vice-President
58. Which power belongs to the U.S. House of Representatives?
a) The power to impeach officials. b) The power to try impeachment cases
59. Who tries impeachment cases?
a) The President’s Cabinet b) the Senate c) the Supreme Court
60. Who approves treaties (agreements with other nations)?
a) The House of Representatives b) the Senate c) the Supreme Court
61. In which body must all tax bills originate (be introduced)?
a) House of Representatives b) the Senate c) the Supreme Court?
62. Which body approves all presidential appointments? a) US House b) US Senate c)Supreme
63. Which body elects the president if the Electoral College fails to do so?
a) House of Representatives b) the Senate c) the Supreme Court
64. Why do we have “democratic” vs “republican” parties? ____________
65. According to the 2010 census, Illinois has how many U.S. Representatives? _______
66. Illinois has how many U.S. Senators? ____________
67. How many years in a president’s term?
a) two b) four c) six d) eight
68. Nationwide there are how many electoral votes?
a) 50 b) 100 c) 435 d) 538
69. How many electoral votes does a candidate need to receive to win the presidency in the Electoral
b) 26 b) 51 c) 218 d) 270
70. The candidate who receives the most electoral votes automatically wins the presidency.
a) true b) false
71. Which group elects the president if the Electoral College fails to do so?
a) Congress b) House of Representatives c) Senate d) Supreme Court
72. How many judges serve on the US Supreme Court?
a) five b) seven c) nine d) eleven
73. How long is the term of a federal judge?
a) four years b) six years c) as long as the president who appointed them is in office d) life
74. What is the minimum age for voting in the US?
a) sixteen b) eighteen c) twenty d) twenty-one
75. What did the prohibition amendment ban / end?
a) child labor b) alcoholic beverages c) slavery d) voting by women
Great Depression – Causes
From the US History textbook, the links below, previous videos, lectures and your OWN
independent research, respond to the two questions. Be detailed in your responses and
give support.
1.) Who and/or what decision or event was the greatest contributor to the Great Depression? How
did America show its resilience during these dark years?
2.) What law/s/ were enacted at this time, which had a great impact on society? Support
From the US History textbook, the links below, previous videos, lectures and your OWN
independent research, respond to the two questions. Be detailed in your responses and
give support.
1.) What issued in the great industrial revolution? What made it a “revolution”? What significant
technology was developed at this time and how did this big time of industry impact society as a
whole in both negative and positive way/s/? (Support) (2 pages minimum)
2.) How is the Industrial Revolution a foreshadowing of our current age of technology? What is
your prediction of the future of technology – its advances – its negative and positive impact on
jobs, environment, and humanity as a whole? (2 page minimum)
I n
T h e
L e a r n e r
E n g l i s h
S e r i e s
for students of English as a Second Language
I n
Learner English Series
U.S.A. History in Brief
Learner English Edition
Published in 2010 by: Bureau of International Information Programs
United States Department of State
Coordinator:………………………. Daniel Sreebny
Executive Editor:……………….. Jonathan Margolis
Publications Office Director:.. Michael Jay Friedman
Editor in Chief:…………………… Lynne D. Scheib
Managing Editor:……………….. Sonya Weakley
Art Director/Design:……………. David Hamill
Writer:……………………………….. Susan Wallach
Photo researcher:………………. Maggie Sliker
The text of this book was adapted from USA History in Brief, (GPS Catalog No.
V0441-E; also available in Arabic, No. V0441-A; French, No. V-0441-F; and Spanish,
No. V-0441-S) by Susan Wallach. Ms. Wallach is the author of six young adult books
and has been an editor for thirty years. She is currently working on another young
adult novel.
Front & Back Covers: Illustration by Min-Chih Yao / photos from: © Robert
Llewellyn (Independence Hall). © AP Images (Mt. Rushmore; Jackie Robinson; Henry Ford; Golden Gate Bridge;
immigrants; Iwo Jima Memorial). Interior Department/
National Park Service (Liberty Bell). National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA) (space shuttle). Mario
Tama/AFP/Getty Images (fireworks). Library of Congress
(Stanton and Anthony; Sitting Bull). © PhotoSpin, Inc.
(Arlington Cemetery; Statue of Liberty). Dick Halstead/
Time Life Pictures/Getty Images (Reagan-Gorbachev).
Painting by Don Troiani, www.historicalartprints.com
(American Revolution). © Steve Krongard (children
with computer). Courtesy MTV (MTV screen shot).
Other photo credits: Credits from left to right are separated by semicolons,
from top to bottom by dashes. Photos are from the Prints
and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, with the following exceptions: Pages iv-v: Illustration by Jane Sterrett/
Images.com. viii: RF/ Getty Images. 2: ©Cartesia with map
overlay by David Hamill 3: © Russ Finley/Finley-Holiday
Films. 4: Mark C. Burnett/Photo Researchers, Inc. (top).
6: © Chuck Place (bottom). 7: © Miles Ertman/Masterfile
(top). 9: Courtesy The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts,
Phildelphia. Gift of Mrs. Sarah Harrison (The Joseph Harrison, Jr. Collection) 11: Bridgeman Art Library/Superstock
(top). 17: Painting by Don Troiani, www.historicalartprints.
com. 18: Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource,
NY. 19: AP Images. 22: National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA). 23: Michael Ventura. 24: © Robert
Llewellyn. 26: AP Images – Interior Department/National
Park Service. 27: AP Images/U.S. Postal Service (top).
34: Courtesy Cincinnati Art Museum (bottom). 43: Culver.
44: Edison Birthday Committee – AP Images. 53: AP
Images. 54: © Bettmann/CORBIS – Hulton Archive/Getty
Images. 55: AP Images/Ford Motor Company. 56: NY
Daily News. 57: AP Images. 58: American History Slide
Collection – Lockheed. 59: NARA. 60: U.S. Army(top).
62: Getty Images/Superstock. 63: © Bettmann/CORBIS.
64: U.S. Army. 66: © Michael Ochs Archives/CORBIS.
68-69: AP Images (3). 70: Culver – Arthur Schatz/Time Life
Pictures/Getty Images. 72: Courtesy Silverstein Properties.
73: AP Images. 74: J. Scott Applewhite/AP Images –
Andrew Parsons/AP Images. 75: Matt Rourke/AP Images.
76: AP Images.
A Pronunciation Guide
for the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Symbols
Early America
By 12,000 years ago, humans lived throughout much
of what is now the Americas.
Colonial Period
By 1690, 250,000 people lived in the New World.
By 1790, there were 2.5 million people.
The Road to Independence
The ideas of liberalism and democracy are the basis
of the U.S. political system.
The American Revolution and the war for independence
from Britain began with a small fight between British troops
and colonists on April 19, 1775.
Forming a National Government
In 1783, the 13 colonies became the United States.
Early Years, Westward Expansion, and Regional Differences
George Washington became the first president of the
United States on April 30, 1789.
Conflict within the United States
In 1850, the United States was a large country, full
of contrasts.
Civil War and Post-War Reconstruction
The American Civil War started in April 1861.
Growth and Transformation
The United States changed after the Civil War.
Discontent and Reform
By 1900, the United States had seen growth, civil war,
economic prosperity, ane economic hard times.
World War I, 1920s Prosperity, and the Great Depression
In 1914, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey fought
Britain, France, Italy, and Russia.
The New Deal and World War II
President Roosevelt believed that democracy had
failed in other countries because of unemployment
and insecurity.
The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam
After World War II, the United States and Great Britain
had long-term disagreements with the Soviet Union over
the future of Europe, most of which had been freed from
Nazi rule by their joint effort.
Cultural Change 1950–1980
At home, some Americans began to have easier lives.
End of the 20th Century
The United States always has been a place where
different ideas and views compete to influence law
and social change.
The United States has dramatically changed from its
beginnings as 13 little-known colonies.
Table of Contents
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his book is the learner’s edition
of our U.S.A. History in Brief. It will
teach you about important events in
the history of the United States. You also
will find many beautiful pictures of the events
and people who shaped that history.
This is the first in a series of books to help people
learn the English language. Each of our Learner
English books will have a different topic that teaches readers about the United States and helps them
understand new words.
Some words will appear in boldface type. You will
find their meanings, or definitions, in a brightly
colored box on the same page, along with examples
of how to use the word.
As in other languages, English has many words
that may have two, three, or more meanings. In
this book, only the meaning of a word as it is used
on that page is listed.
If you want to learn other meanings or ways the
words in this book can be used, and if you have
access to the Internet, free dictionaries are available. All the definitions in this book come from
Merriam-Webster’s Learner’s English Dictionary, at
their website www.learnersdictionary.com. There
you will find every form and meaning of each word
and many examples in sentences.
Also, along with this book you may have received
a CD. On it is a person reading the entire book. If
you listen while you read, you can hear exactly how
each word is pronounced when you see it. In addition, the International Phonetic Alphabet spelling
is provided to help you say the words.
If you are an English teacher, you can use this book
as another tool to help your students learn new words
and the different ways they are used. If you use the
Internet, you can play the entire recording online
and pause it wherever you like. You also can find a
portable document file (PDF) of the book.
We hope you enjoy the features of this book. We
plan to provide many more. You can find more
information about this book at www.america.gov/
publications/books/learner_english.html. We want
your feedback about this book and your suggestions
for future titles. Write us at learnerenglish@state.gov.
A Pronunciation Guide
for the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Symbols
se the following link (for MerriamWebster’s English Learner’s Online
Dictionary website) http://www.
to hear audio files of the pronunciations of these
words using the International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) symbols.


ask, bat, glad
cot, bomb, caught, paw
bet, fed
about, banana, collide
very, any, thirty
eat, bead, bee
id, bid, pit
foot, should, put
boot, two, coo
under, putt, bud
merge, bird, further
eight, wade, bay
ice, bite, tie
out, gown, plow
oyster, coil, boy
oat, own, zone, blow
car, heart, bizarre
bare, fair, wear
near, deer, mere, pier
boar, port, door, shore
boor, tour, insure






baby, labor, cab
day, kid
just, badger, fudge
then, either, bathe
foe, tough, buff
go, dagger, bag
hot, ahead
yes, vineyard
lacquer, flock, skin
cat, keep, account
law, hollow
pedal, battle, final
pool, boil
mat, hemp, hammer, rim
new, tent, tenor, run
button, satin, kitten
rung, hang, swinger
lapse, top, lip, speed
pay, pet, appear
rope, arrive
sad, mist, kiss
shoe, mission, slush
mat, stick, late
toe, attack
later, catty, riddle
batch, nature
choose, chin, achieve
thin, ether, bath
vat, never, cave
wet, software
zoo, easy, buzz
vision, azure, beige
button, kitten, satin
Other Symbols
high stress: penmanship
low stress: penmanship
he United States of America has been a
democracy for more than 200 years.
Issues that were important in its early
years remain so today: big government versus
small government, individual rights versus group
rights, free markets versus controlled trade,
and connection with the world versus focusing
on internal affairs.
The U.S. tries to be a fair and just society, and much
of the time it succeeds. Through compromise and
change, the country has grown, prospered, and made
progress toward its ideals.
de·moc·ra·cy / d mɑ: krəsi /
noun plural -cies
: a form of government in
which people choose leaders
by voting • The nation has chosen democracy over monarchy.
: a country ruled by democracy
• In a democracy, every citizen
should have the right to vote.
• Western democracies
right / ˈraɪt / adjective plural
: something that a person is
or should be morally or legally
allowed to have, get, or do
• women fighting for equal rights
• The government has denied the
people their rights. [=has not allowed the people to do the things
that they should be allowed to do]
fair / ˈfeɚ / adjective fair·er;
: agreeing with what is
thought to be right or acceptable • fair elections • The workers claim that they are not being
paid fair wages. [=they are being
paid less than they should be paid]
: treating people in a way that
does not favor some over others • a fair and impartial jury • All
she wants is a fair chance. [=the
same chance everyone else gets]
just / ˈʤʌst / adjective [more
just; most just]
: agreeing with what is
considered morally right
or good : fair • a just society
• a just cause for war • a just
decision : treating people
in a way that is considered
morally right • a just man
/ ˈkɑ:mprəˌmaɪz / noun plural
: a way of reaching agreement
in which each person or group
gives up something that was
wanted in order to end an
argument or dispute • To avoid
an argument, always be ready
to seek compromise. • The two
sides were unable to reach a
compromise. [=unable to come
to an agreement]
ide·al / aɪˈdi:l / noun
plural ideals
: an idea or standard of
perfection or excellence • The
organization has remained true
to its ideals. [=has continued to
work for and support the goals
that it considers most worthwhile
and important] • He hasn’t lived
up to his high ideals.
Opposite: Multitudes of red, white,
and blue balloons were released
over the U.S. Capitol during the
Bicentennial of the Constitution
celebration in 1987.
Early America
he most recent Ice Age was about
35,000 years ago. Much of the world’s
water was frozen into big sheets of
ice. A land bridge—as wide as 1,500 kilometers—
joined Asia and North America. By 12,000 years
ago, humans lived throughout much of what now
are the Americas.
Opposite: The hatched area of this
polar view of the globe shows a land
bridge of Beringia which once joined
Asia and North America.
Above: The Mesa Verde settlement
in Colorado was built in the 1200s.
The first “Americans” crossed the land bridge
from Asia. Historians believe that they lived in
what now is Alaska for thousands of years. They
moved south into today’s mainland United States.
They lived by the Pacific Ocean in the Northwest,
in the mountains and deserts of the Southwest,
and along the Mississippi River in the Midwest.
These early groups are known as Hohokam,
Adenans, Hopewellians, and Anasazi. They built
villages and grew crops. Their lives were connected
to the land. Family and community were important to them. History shows they told stories and
shared information mostly by talking, not writing. Some used a form of picture writing called
hieroglyphics. Nature was important to their
spiritual beliefs. Some groups built big piles of
earth in the shapes of snakes, birds, or pyramids.
The different groups traded with each other, but
they also fought.
No one knows why, but these groups disappeared.
Other groups, Hopi and Zuni, later came to this
land and prospered. By the time the first Europeans arrived, about two million native people lived
in what now is the United States.
spir·i·tu·al / ˈspirɪtʃəwəl /
adj [more ~; most ~]
: of or relating to a person’s
spirit • Doctors must consider
the emotional and spiritual
needs of their patients. • I’m
working on my spiritual growth/
development. [=the growth of
my mind and spirit]
Above: People of the Native-American
fort known as Ancient Culture built
the Great Serpent Mound in Adams
County, Ohio. They erected the 403meter monument between A.D. 1000
and 1550.
Below: About 4,000 Native Americans
lived in Lakota Village near Pine
Ridge, South Dakota. (circa 1891)
Above: Christopher Columbus at the
Royal Court of Spain Chromolithograph by Masters Cromwell and
Kirkpatrick, circa 1884. Christopher
Columbus is presenting his request
to Queen Isabella I and King Ferdinand V and a gathering of courtiers.
Historians believe that the Norse may have been
the first Europeans to arrive. They came from
Greenland, where Erik the Red had started a
settlement around 985. In 1001, Erik’s son, Leif,
explored the northeast coast of what now is Canada.
Remaining pieces of Norse houses were found in
northern Newfoundland.
It took almost 500 years for other Europeans to
reach North America, and another 100 for them
to build permanent settlements. The first explorers
did not know about America. They were looking for
a way to go to Asia from Europe by sea. Other
Europeans who arrived later—mostly Spanish and
Portuguese, but also Dutch, French, and British—
came for land and the riches of the “New World.”
The most famous explorer was Christopher
Columbus. He was Italian, but Queen Isabella
of Spain paid for his trips. Columbus landed on
islands in the Caribbean Sea in 1492. He never
reached what is now the United States.
Above: Cummod esequat, vullamc
onsequat, core tate minisi ea feugue
dignim iriliquat. Atio eGait am vel ip
exerosto elis nisit adigna feugait ex
eliqui euguer adigna amet luptatue
feugait, quat aliquis digna commolenim il irit lorerae ssequat ipsusci
llutpat. Right: Iquat euipissequam
vulpute mod magna faccum inibh
eu facincilit wis augiati smolore
dolessed modiamet ullaortis atio del
ute feugue dolor incin ute digniscilit
erosto commodolor at.To dionsen
dignit am zzriusc illaortisl ut vent nos
ametue dolut ut nonullummy nisim
exeros alit lor sum dunt prat, si.
In 1497, John Cabot, an explorer sailing for England, landed in eastern Canada. His arrival established a British claim to land in North America.
During the 1500s, Spain explored and claimed
more land in the Americas than did any other
country. In 1513, Juan Ponce de Léon landed in
Florida. Hernando De Soto landed in Florida in
1539 and then explored all the way to the Mississippi River.
Spain conquered Mexico in 1522. In 1540, Francisco
Vázquez de Coronado wanted to find the mythical
Seven Cities of Cibola. He started looking in Mexico
and then traveled north to the Grand Canyon in
Arizona and into the Great Plains.
Other Europeans, such as Giovanni da Verrazano,
Jacques Cartier, and Amerigo Vespucci, explored
further north. The two American continents
were named after Amerigo Vespucci.
The first permanent European settlement in North
America was Spanish. It was built in St. Augustine
in Florida. Thirteen British colonies to the north
myth·i·cal / ˈmɪθɪkəl /
: based on or described in a
myth • Hercules was a mythical
hero who was half man and half
god. • gods fighting in a mythical battle in the sky • a mythical
beast/creature : existing only
in the imagination : imaginary • The sportswriters picked
a mythical all-star team.
Above: John Cabot and his son
Sebastian sailed from England and
landed in Newfoundland, Canada,
in 1497.
Right: San Juan Capistrano Mission
is one of nine missions founded by
Fray Junipero Sera, a Franciscan
priest who led the Spanish settlement of California.
would later form the United States. Virginia and
Massachusetts were the two earliest.
It wasn’t just explorers who settled in the New
World. People started to come to the New World to
live. These people were immigrants from Europe.
1. How did the first people reach the Americas?
A. Sailing from Asia
B. Walking across a frozen bridge of ice
C. Sailing from Spain
Above: The Spanish built the Castillo
de San Marcos between 1672 and
1695 to guard St. Augustine, Florida.
Below: Hernando de Soto of Spain
led a European expedition in 1540
with plans to colonize North America.
Answers: 1. B; 2. C; 3. B
2. Who are believed to be the first Europeans
to arrive in the New World?
A. Spanish
B. English
C. Norse
3. What was Christopher Columbus looking for
when he sailed to the New World?
A. Gold
B. Asia
C. Spanish settlements
Colonial Period
ost people who came to the British
colonies in the 1600s were English.
Others came from The Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, France, Scotland, and
Northern Ireland. By 1690, 250,000 people
lived in the New World. By 1790, there were
2.5 million people.
People came for different reasons. Some left their
homes to escape war. Others sought political or
religious freedom. Some had to work as servants to
pay back the cost of their trip before gaining their
freedom. Some, like black Africans, arrived as slaves.
In time, the 13 colonies developed within three
distinct regions.
rea·son / ˈri:zn̩ / noun
plural rea·sons
: a statement or fact that
explains why something is the
way it is, why someone does,
thinks, or says something, or
why someone behaves a
certain way • I can’t give you
the report for the simple reason
that it isn’t finished yet.
seek / ˈsi:k / verb seeks;
sought / ˈsɑ:t / seek·ing
: to search for (someone or
something) : to try to find
(someone or something) • He
is seeking employment. [=he is
looking for a job]
trea·ty / ˈtri:ti / noun
plural trea·ties
: an official agreement that is
made between two or more
countries or groups •= The
country’s warring factions have
signed a peace treaty. [=an
agreement to stop fighting a war]
Opposite: A Puritan husband and wife
walk to church in this print of a painting by G. H. Boughton from 1884.
Below: American artist Benjamin West
(1738-1820) painted William Penn’s
treaty with the Native Americans of
Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was safe
for Quakers and others who wanted
religious freedom. Penn treated the
Indians well.
The first settlements were along the Atlantic coast
and on rivers that flowed into the ocean. In the
Northeast, trees covered the hills and stones filled
the soil, but water power was available. The Northeast was called New England, and it included
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
The economy was based on timber, fishing, shipbuilding, and trade.
The middle colonies included New York, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland.
The weather was milder and the countryside
was more varied. People worked in industry and
agriculture. The society was more diverse and
sophisticated. People living in New York came
from all over Europe.
di·verse / daɪˈvɚs /
adjective [more di*verse;
most di*verse]
: different from each other
• The magazine covers topics
as diverse [=varied] as chemistry
and sculpture. • people with
diverse interests : made up
of people or things that are
different from each other
• His message appealed to a
diverse audience. • The group
of students is very diverse.
[=the students are different
ages, races, etc.] • a diverse
group of subjects
The Southern colonies included Virginia, Georgia,
and North Carolina and South Carolina. The growing season was long and the soil was fertile. Most
people were farmers. Some owned small farms that
they worked themselves. The wealthy farmers owned
large plantations and used African slaves as workers.
The relationships between settlers and Native
Americans (also called Indians) were good and bad.
In some areas, the two groups traded and were
/ səˈfɪstəˌkeɪtəd / adjective
[more so*phis*ti*cat*ed;
most so*phis*ti*cat*ed]
: having or showing a lot of
experience and knowledge
about the world and about
culture, art, literature, etc.
• She was a sophisticated and
well-traveled woman. • She has
sophisticated tastes. : attractive to fashionable or sophisticated people • a swank and
sophisticated restaurant
Above: William Penn established
Pennsylvania, named for his recently deceased father William Sr., as
a Quaker colony tolerating various
faiths and races in 1682.
Right: Pilgrims sign the Mayflower
Compact on the ship in 1620.
Opposite above: A devout Puritan
elder (right) confronts patrons
drinking ale outside a tavern.
Opposite below: Cotton Mather
was one of the leading Puritan
figures of the late 17th and early
18th centuries.
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
force / ˈfoɚs / verb forces;
forced; forc·ing
: to make (someone) do
something that he or she
does not want to do • They
forced us to work long hours
without pay. • He was forced to
resign from office. = He was
forced out of office.
/ pɑɚˈtɪsəˌpeɪt / verb
friendly. In most cases, as the settlements grew
bigger, the settlers forced the Indians to move.
As time went on, all the colonies developed governments based on the British tradition of citizen participation. In Britain, the Glorious Revolution of
1688–1689 limited the power of the king and gave
more power to the people. The American colonists
closely observed these changes. Colonial assemblies
claimed the right to act as local parliaments. They
passed laws that limited the power of the royal
governor and increased their own authority.
Disagreements between the royal governors and
the assemblies continued. The colonists realized
that their interests often were different from
Britain’s interests. At first, the colonists wanted
self-government within a British commonwealth.
Only later did they want independence.
par·tic·i·pates; par·tic·i·
pat·ed; par·tic·i·pat·ing
: to be involved with others
in doing something : to take
part in an activity or event
with others • Most people
joined the game, but a few
chose not to participate.
/ pɑɚˌtɪsəˈpeɪʃən / noun
• The show had a lot of
audience participation.
pow·er / ˈpawɚ / noun
plural pow·ers
: the ability or right to control
people or things • She is from
a very wealthy family with a lot
of social power. • The company
abused its power, forcing
workers to work overtime
without pay. • He has no power
over me.
law / ˈlɑ: / noun plural laws
: a rule made by the government of a town, state,
country, etc. [count] • A law
requires that schools provide a
safe learning environment. =
There is a law requiring schools
to provide a safe learning
/ ˈkɑ:mənˌwɛlθ / noun plural
: a group of countries or
states that have political or
economic connections with
one another — often + of
• a commonwealth of states
—the Commonwealth : the
countries that were once part
of the British Empire
Answers: 1. B; 2. C
1. How many original colonies were there?
A. 50
B. 13
C. 17
2. Which European country owned the colonies?
A. Spain
B. The Netherlands
C. Britain
The Road
to Independence
lib·er·al·ism / ˈlɪbərəˌlɪzəm,
ˈlɪbrəˌlɪzəm / noun
: belief in the value of social
and political change in order
to achieve progress • political
em·pire / ˈɛmˌpajɚ / noun
plural em·pires
: a group of countries or
regions that are controlled
by one ruler or one goverment ; especially • the Roman
pol·i·cy / ˈpɑ:ləsi / noun
plural pol·i·cies
: an officially accepted set
of rules or ideas about what
should be done [count]
• They voted to adopt/pursue
more liberal trade policies.
• American foreign policy
il·le·gal / ɪˈli:gəl / adjective
: not allowed by the law
: not legal • illegal [=illicit,
unlawful] drugs
Opposite: A print by famous revolutionary Paul Revere shows British soldiers firing into a crowd of
people in 1770.
Below: The protest against British
taxes in 1773 was known as the
Boston Tea Party.
he ideas of liberalism and democracy are the basis of the U.S. political system. As the colonists built
their new society, they believed more strongly
in these ideas. Britain’s 13 colonies grew in
population and economic strength during
the 1700s. Although ruled by a distant
government, the colonists governed many
local affairs.
After Britain won a costly war with France in the
1750s, the colonists were asked to help pay for the
war, and for Britain’s large empire. These policies
restricted the colonists’ way of life.
For example, the Royal Proclamation of 1763
restricted the colonists from settling new land.
The Currency Act of 1764 made it illegal to print
paper money in the colonies. The Quartering Act
re·sis·tance / rɪˈzɪstəns /
: effort made to stop or to
fight against someone or
something • The troops met
heavy/stiff resistance as they
approached the city.
del·e·gate / ˈdɛlɪgət / noun
plural del·e·gates
: a person who is chosen or
elected to vote or act for
others : representative
• He’s been chosen as a
delegate to the convention.
of 1765 forced the colonists to provide food and
housing for the royal soldiers. The Stamp Act of
1765 taxed all legal papers, licenses, newspapers,
and leases.
The Stamp Act united the colonists in an organized resistance. The main problem was that they
weren’t allowed to participate in the government
that taxed them.
In October 1765, 27 delegates from nine colonies
met in New York. They passed resolutions saying
that the individual colonies should have the right
to impose their own taxes. This satisfied most of
the delegates, but a small number of radicals
wanted independence from Britain.
One of those people was Samuel Adams of Massachusetts. He wrote newspaper articles and made
speeches. The groups he helped to organize became a big part of the revolutionary movement.
By 1773, colonial traders, who were angry with
British regulation of the tea trade, were interested
in Sam Adams’s ideas. In December 1773, a group
of men sneaked on three British ships in Boston
harbor and threw the cargo of tea overboard. This
event became known as the Boston Tea Party.
res·o·lu·tion / ˌrɛzəˈlu:ʃən /
noun plural res·o·lu·tions
: a formal statement that
expresses the feelings,
wishes, or decision of a
group • The assembly passed
a resolution calling for the
university president to step
im·pose / ɪmˈpoʊz / verb
im·pos·es; im·posed;
: to cause (something, such
as a tax, fine, rule, or
punishment) to affect
someone or something by
using your authority • The
judge imposed a life sentence.
• impose [=levy] a tax on
rad·i·cal / ˈrædɪkəl / noun
plural radicals
: a person who favors
extreme changes in government : a person who has
radical political opinions •
He was a radical when he was
young, but now he’s much
more moderate.
ar·ti·cle / ˈɑɚtɪkəl / noun
plural ar·ti·cles
: a piece of writing about
a particular subject that is
included in a magazine,
newspaper, etc. • He has
published numerous articles
in scholarly journals.
move·ment / ˈmu:vmənt /
noun plural move·ments
: a series of organized
activities in which many
people work together to
do or achieve something
• She started a movement
[=campaign] for political
reform. : the group of
people who are involved
in such a movement • They
joined the antiwar/peace/
feminist movement.
Above: Samuel Adams, cousin of
John Adams, second U.S. president,
is known for his strong support of
the U.S. revolutionary movement.
pun·ish / ˈpʌnɪʃ / verb
pun·ish·es; pun·ished;
: to make (someone) suffer
for a crime or for bad behavior • I think that murderers
should be punished by/with life
: to make someone suffer
for (a crime or bad behavior)
• State law punishes fraud with
fines. • The law states that
treason shall be punished by
death. [=that the punishment
for treason is death]
/ ˌrɛprɪˈzɛntətɪv / noun
plural representatives
: someone who acts or
speaks for or in support of
another person or group • a
sales representative [=a
salesperson] • the actor’s
personal representative
[=agent] : a member of the
House of Representatives of
the U.S. Congress or of a
state government
state / ˈsteɪt / noun plural
: a way of living or existing
• We must keep our armed
forces in a constant state of
: the things that affect the
way you think or feel : your
physical or mental condition
• her mental/emotional state
+ of •esequat,
the current/
core tate
ea feugue
present state
of the
iriliquat. Atio
am of
vel ip
• The country
is ineGait
a state
nisit adigna
war. [=the
is atfeugait
war] ex
eliqui euguer adigna amet luptatue
quat/ ˈsʌbʤɪkt
aliquis digna/ commosub·ject
il irit
lorerae ssequat ipsusci
: a person who lives in a
is ruled
wis augiati
or queen
: a citizen
a monarchy • British subjectsdel
ute feugue dolor incin ute digniscilit
at.To dionsen
/ ˈmɑ:dərət
illaortisl ut vent
: a person whose political nisim
sum dunt :prat,
a si.
The British Parliament punished Massachusetts
by closing Boston’s port and by restricting local
authority. Colonists called these new laws the
Intolerable Acts and united to oppose them. All
the colonies except Georgia sent representatives
to Philadelphia in September 1774 to talk about
their “present unhappy state.” It was the First
Continental Congress.
Colonists were angry with the British for taking
away their rights, but not everyone agreed on
the solution. Loyalists wanted to stay subjects
under the king. Moderates wanted to compromise and build a better relationship with the
British government. The revolutionaries wanted
complete independence. They began collecting
weapons and getting men ready—waiting for the
fight for independence.
1. Which act caused the greatest reaction from
the colonists?
A. The Currency Act
B. The Stamp Act
C. The Quartering Act
2. What did the colonists throw into Boston
A. Stamps
B. British paper money
C. Tea
3. What did moderates in the colonies wish for
in their relationship to Britain?
A. For everything to stay the way it was
B. To move to Britain and leave the colonies
C. A compromise and a better relationship
with the British government
person who has moderate
opinions or is a member of
a moderate political group
• Moderates from both political parties have agreed on an
economic plan.
Answers: 1. B; 2. C; 3. C
am·mu·ni·tion /ˌæmjəˈnɪʃən
/ noun
: the objects (such as
bullets and shells) that are
shot from weapons • The
troops were supplied with
weapons and ammunition.
pro·test / prəˈtɛst / verb
pro·tests; pro·test·ed;
: to show or express strong
disapproval of something
at a public event with other
people [no obj] • Students
protested at the civil rights
rally. • They were protesting
against the death penalty.
Opposite: Patrick Henry, standing
on the right, said these famous
words: “Give me liberty or give
me death.”
Above: The first shots of the
American Revolution were fired
when the Minutemen faced the
British at Lexington, Massachusetts, on April 19, 1775.
he American Revolution and the
war for independence from Britain
began with a small fight between
British troops and colonists on April 19,
1775. The British troops left Boston, Massachusetts, planning to take weapons and
ammunition from revolutionary colonists.
At Lexington, they met armed colonists who
were called Minutemen because they could be
ready to fight in a minute. The Minutemen
planned to protest silently and not shoot unless
the British shot first.
The British ordered the Minutemen to leave. The
colonists obeyed, but as they left, someone fired a
vote / ˈvoʊt / verb votes;
vot·ed; vot·ing
: to make an official choice
for or against someone or
something by casting a ballot,
raising your hand, speaking
your choice aloud, etc. • The
committee hasn’t yet voted on
the matter. • Congress voted
121 to 16 to pass the bill.
force / ˈfoɚs / noun plural
: a group of soldiers trained
to fight in a war • a force of
20,000 soldiers • The enemy
forces had us surrounded.
• allied/rebel forces
re·bel·lion / rɪˈbɛljən / noun
plural re·bel·lions
: an effort by many people to
change the government or
leader of a country by the use
of protest or violence
• The unfair tax laws sparked a
rebellion. • The peasants rose in
rad·i·cal / ˈrædɪkəl / adjective
[more rad*i*cal; most
: having extreme political
or social views that are not
shared by most people
• radical liberals/conservatives
• a radical wing of extremists
mon·ar·chy / ˈmɑnɚki / noun
plural mon·ar·chies
: a form of government in
which a country is ruled by a
monarch • the French monarchy of the 18th century
pam·phlet / ˈpæmflət / noun
plural pam·phlets
: a small, thin book with no
cover or only a paper cover
that has information about a
particular subject
Right: James Madison, the fourth
president of the United States, was
named the Father of the Constitution.
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Above: Cummod esequat, vullamc
onsequat, core tate minisi ea feugue
dignim iriliquat. Atio eGait am vel ip
exerosto elis nisit adigna feugait ex
eliqui euguer adigna amet luptatue
feugait, quat aliquis digna commolenim il irit lorerae ssequat ipsusci
llutpat. Right: Iquat euipissequam
vulpute mod magna faccum inibh
eu facincilit wis augiati smolore
dolessed modiamet ullaortis atio del
ute feugue dolor incin ute digniscilit
erosto commodolor at.To dionsen
dignit am zzriusc illaortisl ut vent nos
ametue dolut ut nonullummy nisim
exeros alit lor sum dunt prat, si.
shot. The British troops attacked the Minutemen
with guns and bayonets.
Fighting broke out in other places along the way
as the British soldiers in their bright red uniforms
returned to Boston. More than 250 “redcoats” were
killed or wounded. The Americans lost 93 men.
Colonial representatives hurried to Philadelphia
for the Second Continental Congress. More than
half voted to go to war against Britain. They
decided to form one army from the colonial
forces. George Washington of Virginia became
the commander-in-chief.
At the same time, they sent King George III a
peace resolution to try to avoid a war. The king
rejected it. On August 23, 1775, the king said the
American colonies were in rebellion.
The desire for independence increased in the
next few months. Thomas Paine, a radical political thinker, argued for independence and against
hereditary monarchy in his pamphlet Common
Sense. He described two possible conditions for
America. The people could remain unequal citizens
under a king, or they could live in an independent
country with hopes of liberty and happiness.
The Second Continental Congress created a committee to write a document that outlined the colonies’ complaints against the king and explained
their decision to separate from Britain. The reasons were based on French and British ideas.
Thomas Jefferson was the main writer of the
Declaration of Independence.
The Declaration of Independence told the world
of a new nation and its beliefs about human freedom.
It argued that political rights are basic human rights
and are universal.
The Second Continental Congress accepted this
document on July 4, 1776. The Fourth of July
became Independence Day in the United States.
con·di·tion / kənˈdɪʃən / noun
plural con·di·tions
: a way of living or existing
• Happiness is the state or condition of being happy. • The need
to be loved is simply part of the
human condition. [=being human]
lib·er·ty / ˈlɪbɚti / noun plural
: the state or condition of
people who are able to act
and speak freely : freedom
• a nation that values liberty and
democracy • soldiers willing to
die in defense of liberty
uni·ver·sal / ˌju:nəˈvɚsəl /
adjective [more uni*ver*sal;
most uni*ver*sal]
: existing or true at all times
or in all places • universal truths/
laws • a pattern that is universal
across all cultures
Above: Thomas Jefferson was
author of the Declaration of Independence and third president of
the United States. Jefferson also
founded the University of Virginia
and built one of America’s most
celebrated houses, Monticello, in
Charlottesville, Virginia.
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
de·feat / dɪˈfi:t / verb
de·feats; de·feat·ed;
: to win a victory over
(someone or something) in
a war, contest, game, etc.
• We must be ready to defeat
our enemies in battle. • He
defeated his opponent.
flee / ˈfli: / verb flees;
fled / ˈflɛd / flee·ing
: to run away from (a
place) • He was accused of
trying to flee the scene of the
accident. • Many people fled
the city to escape the
fighting. • He was forced to
flee the country.
rec·og·nize / ˈrɛkɪgˌnaɪz /
verb rec·og·niz·es;
rec·og·nized; rec·og·niz·ing
: to accept and approve of
(something) as having legal
or official authority • The
U.S. government has now
recognized the newly formed
country. • They refused to
recognize the treaty.
en·e·my / ˈɛnəmi / noun
plural en·e·mies
: a group of people (such as
a nation) against whom
another group is fighting a
war —usually singular
• Some of the soldiers went
over to the enemy. • He
found himself behind enemy
: a military force, a ship, or
a person belonging to the
other side in a war
—usually singular • They
targeted the enemy at close
Above: Lord Cornwallis and the
British army surrendered to American and French forces commanded
by George Washington at Yorktown,
Virginia, on October 19, 1781. The
Battle of Yorktown led to the end
of the war and to American independence, secured in the 1783
Treaty of Paris.
The colonies and Britain went to war. British soldiers
defeated General Washington’s forces in New York
and took control of Philadelphia, forcing the Second
Continental Congress to flee. The Continental Army
won at Saratoga in New York and at Princeton and
Trenton in New Jersey. George Washington had
problems getting the men and materials he needed
to fight the war.
In 1778, France recognized the United States as
an independent country and signed a treaty of
alliance. France helped the United States as a way
to weaken Britain, its long-time enemy.
There were battles from Montreal, Canada, to
Savannah, Georgia. A huge British army surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781. The war
ended when a peace treaty was signed in Paris on
April 15, 1783. In this treaty, Britain and other
nations recognized the United States as an independent nation.
The Revolution affected more than North America.
The idea of natural rights became stronger throughout the Western world. Famous men, such as Thaddeus Kosciusko (Poland), Friedrich von Steuben
(Prussia), and the Marquis de Lafayette (France)
took the ideas of freedom to their own countries.
The Treaty of Paris turned the 13 colonies into states,
but the job of becoming one nation remained.
1. The British soldiers were also called what?
A. Redcoats
B. Minutemen
C. Roundheads
2. Who was the commander-in-chief of the
colonial army?
A. Thomas Paine
B. Thomas Jefferson
C. George Washington
3. What American holiday celebrates the
colonists’ victory?
A. Veteran’s Day
B. Declaration Day
C. Fourth of July
nat·u·ral / ˈnætʃərəl /
[always used before a noun
formal] : based on a sense
of what is right and wrong
• natural justice/law
Answers: 1. A; 2. C; 3. C
a National
n 1783, the 13 colonies became the
United States. Before the war ended,
the colonies had developed the Articles
of Confederation, a plan to work together
as one nation, but the connections among
the 13 states were loose.
Each state had its own money, army, and navy. Each
state traded and worked directly with other countries. Each state collected taxes in its own way. Each
state believed its way was the right way.
It was a nation of 13 countries.
/ kənˌfɛdəˈreɪʃən / noun plural
: a group of people, countries,
organizations, etc., that are
joined together in some activity
or effort • a loose confederation
[=coalition] of businesses
Opposite: The original U.S. Constitution was signed by the delegates in
Philadelphia on September 17, 1787.
Below: Historical documents are on
display in the Exhibition Hall of the
National Archives in Washington, D.C.
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Alexander Hamilton from New York believed that
the 13 states needed to rethink the Confederation. He and others suggested a large meeting to
do this.
In May 1787, 55 delegates met in Philadelphia.
They knew about history, law, and political theory.
They understood colonial and state government.
Most did not think the Articles of Confederation
worked very well. They proposed a constitution describing a new form of government based on separate legislative, executive, and judicial authorities.
The delegates did not agree on all the details.
Many delegates wanted a strong national government that would limit a state’s rights. Others believed that a weak national government was better. They wanted the states to have more power.
Some delegates wanted fewer people to have
the right to vote; they believed that most people
lacked the education to make good decisions.
Delegates from small states wanted each state to
the·o·ry / ˈθi:jəri / noun
plural the·o·ries
: the general principles or
ideas that relate to a particular subject • He is a specialist in film theory and criticism. • music theory
lack / ˈlæk / verb lacks;
lacked; lack·ing
: to not have (something)
[+ obj] • They lack a good
strategy for winning the
Above: Delegates wrote the Constitution at Independence Hall in
Philadelphia during the summer
of 1787.
have equal representation in the new Congress.
Delegates from big states demanded that their
states have more influence.
de·mand / dɪˈmænd / verb
demands; demand·ed;
: to say in a forceful way
that something must be
done or given to you : to
say that you have a right to
(something) • The customer
demanded a refund. • The reporter demanded to see the
un·law·ful / ˌʌnˈlɑ:fəl /
: not allowed by the law
: illegal • The sale of alcohol
to minors is unlawful. • an
unlawful search
re·fuse / rɪˈfju:z / verb
re·fus·es; re·fused; re·fus·ing
: to say or show that you are
not willing to do something
that someone wants you to
do • They asked her to help
but she refused.
frame·work / ˈfreɪmˌwɚk /
noun plural frame·works
: a set of ideas or facts that
provide support for something • The book provides a
general framework for understanding modern politics.
wage / ˈweɪʤ / verb
wages; waged; wag·ing
: to start and continue (a
war, battle, etc.) in order to
get or achieve something
• They waged a guerrilla war
against the government. • They
have waged [=fought] a battle
against the proposed new law.
di·vide / dəˈvaɪd / verb
di·vides; di·vid·ed; di·vid·ing
: to separate (people) into
groups that disagree • The
war divided the nation.
ty·ran·ni·cal / təˈrænɪkəl /
[more ty*ran*ni*cal; most
: using power over people in
a way that is cruel and unfair • a tyrannical dictatorship
Some delegates from states where slavery was
illegal or not widely used wanted slavery to be
unlawful throughout the nation. Delegates from
states where slave labor was important refused.
Some delegates wanted the newly settled lands
to the West to be states. Others disagreed. The
delegates debated four months before reaching
a compromise.
The Constitution provided the framework for
the new government. The national government
could create money, impose taxes, deal with foreign countries, keep an army, create a postal
system, and wage war. To keep the government
from becoming too strong, the U.S. Constitution
divided it into three equal parts—a legislature
(Congress), an executive (president), and a judicial system (Supreme Court). Each part worked
to make sure the other parts did not take power
that belonged to the others.
On September 17, 1787, most of the delegates
signed the new Constitution. They agreed the
Constitution would become the law of the
United States when nine of the 13 states ratified,
or accepted, it.
It took about a year to ratify the Constitution. The
country was divided into two groups. The Federalists wanted a strong central government. They
supported the Constitution. The anti-Federalists
wanted a loose group of states. They feared that
a strong central government would become tyrannical. They were against the Constitution.
After it was accepted, some Americans said the
Constitution did not list the rights of individuals.
When the first U.S. Congress met in New York
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
City in September 1789, the delegates proposed
a number of amendments to the Constitution to
list these rights. They added 10 amendments,
known as the Bill of Rights.
The First Amendment promises freedom of
speech, press, and religion, and the right to protest, meet peacefully, and demand changes. The
Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable
amend·ment / əˈmɛndmənt
/ noun plural
: a change in the words
or meaning of a law or
document (such as a constitution) • The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution of
the United States are called
the Bill of Rights.
press / ˈprɛs / noun plural
: newspapers, magazines,
and radio and television
news reports • American/
foreign/local press • freedom
of the press [=the right of
newspapers, magazines, etc.,
to report news without being
controlled by the government]
Above: John Marshall was chief
justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
from 1801 to 1835.
Left: The Liberty Bell in Philadelphia is a symbol of freedom and
was first rung on July 8, 1776,
to celebrate the adoption of the
Declaration of Independence. It
cracked in 1836 during the
funeral of John Marshall.
searches and arrest. The Fifth Amendment promises due process of law in criminal cases. Since
the Bill of Rights, only 17 amendments have been
added to the Constitution in more than 200 years.
1. Where did the delegates meet to discuss the
new national government?
A. New York
B. Philadelphia
C. Boston
2. What is the document that contains the system
of government of the United States?
A. Declaration of Independence
B. Common Sense
C. The Constitution
3. What are the three branches of government?
A. Congress, president, and a court system
crim·i·nal / ˈkrɪmənl̟ /
: relating to laws that describe crimes rather than to
laws about a person’s rights
• the criminal justice system
• a criminal court/case/trial
Above: This U.S. postage stamp
celebrates the 200th anniversary of
the Lewis and Clark journey that
mapped parts of North America
as far west as Oregon. Thomas
Jefferson was president.
Below: Benjamin Franklin was a
scientist, inventor, writer, newspaper publisher, leader of Philadelphia, diplomat, and signer of the
Declaration of Independence and
the Constitution.
Answers: 1. B; 2. C; 3. A
B. Military, a court system, and president
C. Tax office, Congress, and president
Early Years,
Westward Expansion,
Regional Differences
eorge Washington became the
first president of the United
States on April 30, 1789. He had
been in charge of the army. As president, his
job was to create a working government.
jus·tice / ˈʤʌstəs / noun
plural jus·tic·es
: the process or result of
using laws to fairly judge
and punish crimes and
criminals • They received
justice in court. • the U.S.
Department of Justice
cab·i·net / ˈkæbnɪt / noun
plural cab·i·nets
: a group of people who
give advice to the leader
of a government • the British cabinet • a member of the
President’s Cabinet
term / ˈtɚm / noun plural
: the length of time during
which a person has an official or political office
• The governor will run for a
second term. • He is currently
serving his third term in the
U.S. Senate.
elect / ɪˈlɛkt / verb elects;
elect·ed; elect·ing
: to select (someone) for a
position, job, etc., by voting
• She was elected (as) senator.
= She was elected to the Senate. • He hopes to be elected
to the committee. • an elected official
par·ty / ˈpɑɚti / noun
plural par·ties
: an organization of people
who have similar political
beliefs and ideas and who
work to have their members
elected to positions in the
government • political parties
with opposing agendas • the
ruling party [=the party that is
in power]
Opposite: George Washington, first
president of the United States, is
shown in a print from a portrait by
artist Gilbert Stuart painted between
1840 and 1860.
With Congress, he created the Treasury, Justice,
and War departments. Together, the leaders of
these departments and the others that were
founded in later years are called the cabinet.
One chief justice and five (today eight) associate
justices made up the Supreme Court. Three circuit
courts and 13 district courts were created. Policies
were developed for governing the western territories
and bringing them into the Union as new states.
George Washington served two four-year terms as
president before leaving office. (Only one U.S. president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, has served more than
two terms. Today, the Constitution says that no one
may be elected president more than twice.) The next
two presidents—John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
—had different ideas about the role of government.
This led to the creation of political parties.
John Adams and Alexander Hamilton led the
Federalists. Their supporters included people in
trade and manufacturing. They believed in a
strong central government. Most of their support
was in the North.
Jefferson led the Republicans. Their supporters
included many farmers. They did not want a
strong central government. They believed in
states having more power. They had strong support in the South.
For about 20 years, the United States was friendly
to other countries and neutral toward their disputes, but France and Britain again were at war.
The British navy seized American ships going to
France. The French navy seized American ships
going to Britain.
After years of unsuccessful diplomacy, the United
States went to war with Britain in 1812. The battles
took place mostly in the Northeastern states and
along the East Coast. One part of the British army
reached Washington, D.C., the new U.S. capital.
Soldiers set fire to the president’s mansion. President
James Madison fled as the White House burned.
seize / ˈsi:z / verb seiz·es;
seized; seiz·ing
: to get or take (something)
in a forceful, sudden, or
violent way • The army has
seized control of the city. : to
attack and take control of
(a place) by force or
• The soldiers seized
[=captured] the fort.
di·plo·ma·cy / dəˈploʊməsi
/ noun
: the work of maintaining
good relations between
the governments of
different countries • She
has had a long and distinguished career in diplomacy.
• The government avoided a
war by successfully resolving
the issues through diplomacy.
debt / ˈdɛt / noun plural
: an amount of money
that you owe to a person,
bank, company, etc. • She’s
finally paid off her mortgage
debt. [=the money that she
owed the bank to pay for her
house] • the nation’s growing
foreign debt [=the amount of
money that a country owes
other countries]
Right: Henry Clay was never president, but he was one of the most important politicians of the middle 19th
century. His Missouri Compromise of
1820 temporarily solved the problem
of admitting territories with slaves to
the United States.
The Americans won important battles on land and
sea. Weakened and in debt from its recent war with
France, Britain signed a peace treaty with the U.S. in
1815. The U.S. victory made sure that Britain wouldn’t
establish colonies south of the Canadian border.
By 1815, many of the new nation’s problems had
eased. Under the Constitution, the United States had
a balance between liberty and order. The country
had a low national debt. Much of the continent was
left to explore. The country had peace, prosperity,
and social progress.
An important addition to foreign policy was the
Monroe Doctrine. President James Monroe’s announcement of solidarity with newly independent
nations in Central and South America was a warning
to Europe not to seek colonies in Latin America.
The U.S. doubled in size when it bought the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 and Florida
from Spain in 1819. From 1816 to 1821, six new
states were created. Between 1812 and 1852, the
population tripled.
As the country grew, differences among the states
became more obvious. The United States was a
country of civilized cities and lawless frontiers. The
United States loved freedom but also tolerated
slavery. The differences began to create problems.
1. Who was the third president of the United
A. John Adams
B. Alexander Hamilton
C. Thomas Jefferson
2. What did the British set on fire during the War
of 1812?
A. Executive mansion
B. American ships
C. Supreme Court
3. What territories did the United States buy in
the 1800s?
A. Louisiana
B. Florida
C. All of the above
or·der / ˈoɚdɚ / noun plural
: a social or political system
: the way that a society is or­
ganized or controlled
• These young activists dared to
challenge the established social
order. • calling for the end of the
old order • a new world order
pros·per·i·ty / prɑˈspɛrəti /
: the state of being success­
ful usually by making a lot
of money • a period of pros­
perity for our nation • economic
sol·i·dar·i·ty / ˌsɑ:ləˈderəti /
: a feeling of unity between
people who have the same
interests, goals, etc. • national
solidarity • The vote was a show
of solidarity.
Above: Alexander Hamilton was
the secretary of the treasury for
President George Washington.
Hamilton believed in a strong
federal government.
Answers: 1. C; 2. A; 3. C
Conflict within
the United States
n 1850, the United States was a large
country, full of contrasts. New England
and the Middle Atlantic states were the
centers of finance, trade, shipping, and manufacturing. Their products included lumber,
machinery, and textiles. Southern states
had many farms that used slave labor to
grow tobacco, sugar, and cotton. The Middle
Western states also had farms, but they
were worked by free men.
In 1819, Missouri asked to become a state. Northerners were against this because 10,000 slaves
lived there. Because the Constitution allowed
each new state to elect two senators, new states
could change the political balance between “free”
and “slave” states. Congressman Henry Clay
con·trast / ˈkɑ:nˌtræst /
noun plural con·trasts
: a difference between
people or things that are
being compared • We talked
about the contrasts between
his early books and his later
books. [=the ways in which
his early and later books are
Opposite: Harriet Tubman, photographed two years before she died
in 1913, led hundreds of slaves to
freedom through the Underground
Railroad, a secret network of safe
houses where runaway slaves
could stay.
Right: Some slave families worked
together in the cotton fields as this
one did in the early 1860s.
In the following years, each side held its beliefs
more strongly. Many Northerners thought slavery
was wrong. Others saw it as a threat to free workers. Most white Southerners considered slavery
part of their way of life.
Thousands of slaves escaped to the North with help
from people along secret routes called the Underground Railroad. In 1860, however, one-third of
the total population of slave states was not free.
Most Northerners did not care about slavery in
the South, but they did not want slavery in the
new territories. The Southerners believed that
these territories had the right to decide for themselves whether slavery would be allowed.
A young politician from Illinois believed that this
was not a local issue, but a national one. His name
was Abraham Lincoln. He agreed that the South
could keep its slaves, but he fought to keep slavery
out of the territories. Lincoln thought that over time
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
suggested a way to make the North and South
happy. Missouri would become a state with slaves.
Maine would become a state without slaves. The
Missouri Compromise was accepted.
Above: Harriet Tubman in a photograph taken between 1860 and
1875, also serveda a spy for Union
forces in South Carolina during the
Civil War and worked as a nurse.
Below: With the help of many Americans opposed to slavery, African
Americans in the South rushed from
one safe place to the next to find
freedom in the North through the
Underground Railroad.
slavery would end. “A house divided against itself
cannot stand,” he said. “This government cannot
endure permanently half-slave and half-free.”
The South threatened to leave the Union if
Lincoln became president. After Lincoln won the
election, some Southern states began leaving the
Union before he started working as president.
Could Lincoln hold the country together?
en·dure / ɪnˈdɚ / verb
en·dures; en·dured;
: to continue to exist in the
same state or condition
• This tradition has endured
[=lasted] for centuries. • She
wants to make sure her legacy
will endure.
threat·en / ˈθrɛtn̩ / verb
threat·ens; threat·ened;
: to say that you will harm
someone or do something
unpleasant or unwanted
especially in order to make
someone do what you want
• The workers have threatened
to strike if their demands are
not met. = The workers have
threatened a strike if their
demands are not met.
Right: In a political cartoon, Abraham
Lincoln is shown towering above his
rival presidential candidate Stephen
Douglas, who is taunted by an African
American youth, in campaign “race.”
Slavery was a central issue in the
Answers: 1. A; 2. B; 3. A
1. Who proposed the Missouri Compromise and
which states did it include?
A. Henry Clay and it included Missouri and
B. Henry Clay and it included Missouri and
C. Abraham Lincoln and it included Missouri
and Maine
2. What was the Underground Railroad?
A. Trains that ran under the ground
B. Secret routes for runaway slaves
C. A road system that connected mines
3. What did the Southern states threaten to do if
Lincoln became president?
A. Separate from the United States
B. Return to British rule
C. Impeach Lincoln
Civil War
and Post-War
he American Civil War started in
April 1861. The South claimed the
right to leave the United States, also
called the Union, and form its own Confederacy. President Lincoln led the Northern
states. He was determined to stop the
rebellion and keep the country united.
The North had more people, more raw materials
for producing war supplies, and a better railway
system. The South had more experienced military
leaders and better knowledge of the battlefields
because most of the war was fought in the South.
The war lasted four years. Tens of thousands of
soldiers fought on land and sea.
September 17, 1862, was the bloodiest day of the
war. The two armies met at Antietam Creek in
Opposite: President Abraham Lincoln
visited a Union Army camp after the
battle of Antietam.
Below: Many Confederate soldiers
died at Chancellorsville, Virginia, in
May 1863 even though the Confederate Army won this battle.
Maryland. Gen. Robert E. Lee and his Confederate
Army failed to force back the Union troops led by
Gen. George McClellan. Lee escaped with his army.
The battle was not decisive, but it was politically
important. Britain and France had planned to recognize the Confederacy, but they delayed. The South
never received the help it desperately needed.
Later in 1862, President Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation that freed all
slaves in the Confederate states. It also allowed
African Americans into the Union Army. The
North fought to keep the Union together and
to end slavery.
de·ci·sive / dɪˈsaɪsɪv /
: very clear and obvious • a
decisive victory/win/advantage
de·lay / dɪˈleɪ / verb delays;
delayed; delay·ing
: to wait until later to do
something : to make something happen later [+ obj]
• They delayed [=put off] having
children until their late 30s. • He
delayed too long, and now it’s
too late.
Right: President Lincoln issued
the Emancipation Proclamation on
January 1, 1863, declaring that all
slaves in the rebel states were free.
de·struc·tion / dɪˈstrʌkʃən /
: the act or process of damaging something so badly that it
no longer exists or cannot be
repaired : the act or process
of destroying something • War
results in death and widespread
/ ˈskoɚtʃtˈɚθ / adjective
— used to describe a military
policy in which all the houses,
crops, factories, etc., in an
area are destroyed so that
an enemy cannot use them
• The retreating army adopted a
scorched-earth policy.
con·flict / ˈkɑ:nˌflɪkt / noun
plural con·flicts
: a struggle for power,
property, etc. • an armed
The North began winning important battles. Gen.
William T. Sherman left a path of destruction
(known as the scorched-earth policy) as his army
marched across Georgia and South Carolina in
1864. In Virginia in April 1865, Gen. Lee surrendered to Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. The Civil
War was over. More Americans died in the Civil
War than in any other U.S. conflict.
Less than a week after the South surrendered, a
Confederate sympathizer killed President Lincoln.
Vice President Andrew Johnson became president
with the job of uniting the country. Johnson was a
Southerner. He gave pardons to many Southerners,
giving them back their political rights.
sym·pa·thize / ˈsɪmpəˌθaɪz /
verb sym·pa·thiz·es;
sym·pa·thized; sym·pa·thiz·ing
: to feel or show support for
or approval of something
— + with • She sympathized
with their cause.
—sym·pa·thiz·er noun plural
sym·pa·thiz·ers • The group has
many sympathizers. [=supporters]
par·don / ˈpɑɚdn̩ / noun
plural pardons
: an act of officially saying that
someone who was judged to
be guilty of a crime will be
allowed to go free and will
not be punished • She received
a presidential/royal pardon. [= a
pardon from a president or a king
or queen]
se·ces·sion / sɪˈsɛʃən / noun
plural se·ces·sions
: the act of separating
from a nation or state and
becoming independent
• the secession of the Southern
By the end of 1865, most of the former Confederate
states canceled the acts of secession but refused to
abolish slavery. All the Confederate states except
Tennessee refused to give full citizenship to African
American men.
abol·ish / əˈbɑ:lɪʃ / verb
Inflected forms: abol·ish·es;
abol·ished; abol·ish·ing
: to officially end or stop
(something, such as a law) : to
completely do away with
(something) • abolish slavery/
crim·i·nal / ˈkrɪmənl̟ / adjective
: relating to laws that describe
crimes rather than to laws
about a person’s rights • the
criminal justice system • a criminal
In response, the Republicans in Congress would
not let rebel leaders hold office. The Union generals who governed the South blocked anyone who
Above: Gen. William T. Sherman is
best known for his “March to the
Sea,” on which he burned Atlanta,
Georgia, and laid waste to vast areas
of farmland during the American
Civil War.
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
would not take an oath of loyalty to the Union
from voting. Congress strongly supported the
rights of African Americans.
President Johnson tried to stop many of these
policies. The House of Representatives impeached
Johnson, but the Senate was one vote short of the
two-thirds majority required to remove Johnson
from office. He remained president but began to
give in more often to the Republican Congress.
The Southern states were not allowed to send representatives to Congress until they passed constitutional amendments barring slavery, granting
all citizens “equal protection of the laws,” and
allowing all male citizens the right to vote regardless of race.
oath / ˈoʊθ / noun plural
oaths / ˈoʊðz /
: a formal and serious
promise to tell the truth
or to do something • They
were required to take/swear
an oath of loyalty. [=promise
formally to remain loyal] • an
oath to defend the nation
im·peach / ɪmˈpi:tʃ / verb
im·peach·es; im·peached;
: to charge (a public official) with a crime done
while in office • Congress
will vote on whether or not
to impeach the President.
bar / ˈbɑɚ / verb bars;
barred; bar·ring
: to prevent or forbid
(someone) from doing
something • The judge will
bar the jurors from talking to
reporters. : to prevent or
forbid (something) • forms
of punishment barred by the
grant / ˈgrænt / verb
grants; grant·ed; grant·ing
: to agree to do, give, or
allow (something asked for
or hoped for) • The court
granted the motion for a new
trial. : to give (something)
legally or formally • The
government has agreed to
grant the refugees asylum. =
The government has agreed
to grant asylum to refugees.
• The country was granted
independence in 1950.
pro·tec·tion / prəˈtɛkʃən /
noun plural pro·tec·tions
: the state of being kept
from harm, loss, etc. : the
state of being protected
—often + from • The law
ensures your protection from
illegal searches.
race / ˈreɪs / noun plural
: one of the groups that
people can be divided into
based on certain physical
qualities (such as skin color)
• The company does not
discriminate on grounds of
race, age, sex, or religion.
Above: The crumbled remains of
buildings were left in Charleston,
South Carolina, after Gen. William
T. Sherman forced most people to
leave the city in February, 1865.
Left: The enactment of the 15th
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is celebrated in this print.
The amendment granted African
American men the right to vote.
For a time, these reforms led to real advances for
African Americans in the South. When the North
withdrew its army from the Southern states, especially during the late 1870s, white Southerners regained
political power and began to deprive Southern blacks
of their new rights. Southern blacks were free, but the
local laws denied them their rights. They had the right
to vote, but the threat of violence made them afraid
to use it. Southern states introduced “segregation,”
a system that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities, from schools to drinking fountains. Not surprisingly, the “black” facilities were
not as good as the “white” facilities. The races lived
separately in the South for the next 100 years. In the
20th century, this would become a national issue.
1. When did the American Civil War start?
A. April 1860
B. April 1861
C. April 1862
2. Who led the Confederate Army?
A. George McClellan
B. William T. Sherman
C. Robert E. Lee
3. What did not happen after the Civil War?
A. President Lincoln was assassinated
B. Southern blacks had the right to vote
C. A ll states except Tennessee granted full
citizenship to African American men
re·form / rɪˈfoɚm / noun
plural reforms
: an action, plan, rule, etc.,
that is meant to improve
something • He has proposed a
list of political reforms.
de·prive / dɪˈpraɪv / verb
de·prives; de·prived;
: to take something away
from someone or something :
to not allow (someone or
something) to have or keep
(something) • The new
environmental law will deprive
some fishermen of their
de·ny / dɪˈnaɪ / verb de·nies;
de·nied; de·ny·ing
: to refuse to give (something) to someone
: to prevent someone from
having or receiving (something) • The judge denied
their request. • a government
that denies its citizens basic
as·sas·si·nate / əˈsæsəˌneɪt /
verb as·sas·si·nates;
: to kill (someone, such as a
famous or important person)
usually for political reasons
• President John F. Kennedy was
assassinated in 1963.
Answers: 1. B; 2. C; 3. C
he United States changed after the
Civil War. The frontier became less
wild. Cities grew in size and number.
More factories, steel mills, and railroads were
built. Immigrants arrived in the United States
with dreams of better lives.
This was the age of inventions. Alexander Graham
Bell developed the telephone. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb. George Eastman made the
moving picture, later called a movie. Before 1860,
the government issued 36,000 patents. From 1860
to 1890, the government issued 440,000.
Separate companies merged to become larger companies, sometimes called trusts. This happened
especially in the steel, rail, oil, and communications
industries. With fewer companies, buyers had fewer
in·ven·tion / ɪnˈvɛnʃən / noun
plural in·ven·tions
: something invented: such as
a: a useful new device or process • The light bulb was one of
the most important inventions of
the 19th century.
Opposite: Photographer Edward Curtis
captured a portrait of a lone Cheyenne
American Indian around 1927. Native
Americans sometimes fought for their
lands but were largely defeated.
Below: Immigrants arrive at Ellis Island
in New York City. From 1890 to 1921,
almost 19 million people entered the
United States.
© National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
choices and businesses had more power. An antitrust law was passed in 1890 to stop monopolies,
but it was not very effective.
Farming was still America’s main occupation.
Scientists improved seeds. New machines did
some of the work that men had done. American
farmers produced enough grain, meat, cotton,
and wool to ship the surplus overseas.
The Western regions still had room for exploration and for new settlements. Miners found ore
and gold in mountains. Sheep farmers settled in
river valleys. Food farmers settled on the Great
an·ti·trust / ˌæntaɪˈtrʌst /
adjective always used
before a noun
law : protecting against
unfair business practices
that limit competition or
control prices • antitrust
laws • an antitrust violation
[=a violation of an antitrust
mo·nop·o·ly / məˈnɑ:pəli /
noun plural mo·nop·o·lies
: complete control of the
entire supply of goods or
of a service in a certain
area or market • The company has gained/acquired a
(virtual/near) monopoly of/
on/over the logging industry
in this area.
: a large company that has
a monopoly • The government passed laws intended to
break up monopolies.
Above: Thomas Edison looks at
film used in the motion picture
projector that he invented with
George Eastman.
Left: Alexander Graham Bell
(seated) speaks into the telephone,
which he invented, during the
grand opening celebration of the
long-distance line between New
York and Chicago.
Plains. Ranchers let their cattle graze on the vast
grasslands. Cowboys drove great herds of cattle to
the railroad to ship to the East. The “Wild West”
pictured in many cowboy books and movies lasted
only about 30 years.
When Europeans first arrived on the East Coast,
they pushed the native people west. Each time,
the government promised new land for the native
people so they would have a home. Each time, the
promises were broken while white settlers took
the land. In the late 1800s, Sioux tribes in the
Northern plains and Apaches in the Southwest
fought back. Although they were strong, the U.S.
government forces defeated them. Many tribes
would live on reservations, which are federal
lands administered by Indian tribes. Today there
are more than 300 reservations.
cow·boy / ˈkaʊˌboɪ / noun
plural cow·boys
: a man who rides a horse
and whose job is to take
care of cows or horses
especially in the western U.S.
• a movie about cowboys in
the old West • He worked for
several years as a cowboy on a
ranch in Texas.
Right: Sitting Bull was the Sioux
chief who led the last great Native
American battle against the U.S.
Army. He defeated Gen. George
Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn
in 1876.
/ ɪmˈpirijəˌlɪzəm / noun
: a policy or practice by
which a country increases
its power by gaining
control over other areas
of the world • British
imperialism created the
enormous British Empire.
Right: The 1st United States Volunteer Calvary of the Spanish American War of 1898 arrives in Florida
on the way to fighting in Cuba.
Theodore Roosevelt, who later became the 26 th president of the U. S.
was a member of the unit, which became known as the Rough Riders.
Below: Mulberry Street in New York
City in the early 1900s also was
known as “Little Italy” because so
many Italian immigrants moved
there to live and work.
Toward the end of the 1800s, European powers
colonized Africa and fought for rights to trade in
Asia. Many Americans believed that the United States
should do the same. Many other Americans did not
like any action that seemed imperialistic.
After a brief war with Spain in 1898, the U.S. controlled several Spanish colonies—Cuba, Puerto
Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. Officially, the
United States encouraged them to become selfgoverning. In reality, the United States kept control.
Idealism in foreign policy co-existed with the
desire to prevent European powers from acquiring
territories that might enable them to project military power toward the United States. Americans
also sought new markets in which they could sell
their goods. By the end of the 19th century, the U.S.
was beginning to emerge as a growing world power.
1. Who invented the telephone?
A. George Eastman
B. Alexander Graham Bell
C. Thomas Edison
2. What Native American tribes fought to save
their way of life?
A. Leni Lenape and the Sioux
B. Apache and the Cherokee
C. The Sioux and Apache
3. The true Wild West era lasted how many years?
A. 40 years
B. It’s still going on today
C. 30 years
ide·al·ism / aɪˈdi:jəˌlɪzəm /
: the attitude of a person
who believes that …
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