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MyManagementLab : Improves Student
Engagement Before, During, and After Class

Prep and
• Video exercises – engaging videos that bring business concepts to life and explore business topics
related to the theory students are learning in class. Quizzes then assess students’ comprehension of
the concepts covered in each video.
• Learning Catalytics – a “bring your own device” student engagement, assessment, and classroom
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questions, and author blogs. Be sure to check back often, this section changes daily.
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NiNth EditioN
David A. Whetten
Brigham Young universitY
Kim S. Cameron
universitY of michigan
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Whetten, David A. (David Allred),
Developing management skills/David A. Whetten, Kim S. Cameron.—9e [edition].
pages cm
ISBN 978-0-13-312747-8 (student edition)
1. Management—Study and teaching. 2. Management—Problems, exercises, etc. I. Cameron, Kim S. II. Title.
HD30.4.W46 2016
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-312747-8
B r i e f ta B l e o f c o n t e n t s
Preface xix
PArt I
Personal skIlls
Developing self-awareness 37
Managing stress and Well-Being 85
solving Problems analytically and Creatively
InterPersonal skIlls 187
Building relationships by Communicating supportively
Gaining Power and Influence 227
Motivating others 263
Managing Conflict 305
GrouP skIlls 363
8 empowering and engaging others 365
9 Building effective teams and teamwork 401
10 leading Positive Change 443
sPeCIfIC CoMMunICatIon skIlls 487
Module a
Making oral and Written Presentations
Module B
Conducting Interviews 517
Module C
Conducting Meetings 551
appendix I Glossary 571
appendix II references 581
Index 609
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iNtroductioN 1
the critical role of management skills
The Importance of Competent Managers 4
The Skills of Effective Managers 5
What Are Management Skills? 6
Improving Management Skills 7
An Approach to Skill Development 7
Leadership and Management 9
Contents of the Book 11
Organization of the Book 12
Diversity and Individual Differences 13
Summary 14
suPPlementarY material 15
Diagnostic Survey and Exercises 15
Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS) 15
What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 19
SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 21
scoring keY anD comParison Data 32
Personal Assessment of Management Skills 32
Scoring Key 32
Comparison Data
What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager?
SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 33
PArt I
Personal skIlls
dEvElopiNg SElf-AwArENESS 37
skill assessment 38
Diagnostic Surveys for Developing Self-Awareness
Developing Self-Awareness 38
The Defining Issues Test 38
Cognitive Style Indicator 42
Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale 42
Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES) 43
skill learning 44
Key Dimensions of Self-Awareness 44
The Enigma of Self-Awareness 45
The Sensitive Line 45
Understanding and Appreciating Individual Differences
Important Areas of Self-Awareness 47
Emotional Intelligence 49
Values 51
Ethical Decision Making 57
Cognitive Style 59
Attitudes Toward Change 61
Core Self-Evaluation 63
skill analYsis 67
Cases Involving Self-Awareness
Communist Prison Camp 67
Computerized Exam 69
Decision Dilemmas 70
skill Practice 72
Exercises for Improving Self-Awareness Through Self-Disclosure 72
Through the Looking Glass 72
Diagnosing Managerial Characteristics 73
An Exercise for Identifying Aspects of Personal Culture: A Learning Plan
and Autobiography 75
skill aPPlication 77
Activities for Developing Self-Awareness
Suggested Assignments 77
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
The Defining Issues Test 79
Escaped Prisoner 79
The Doctor’s Dilemma
The Newspaper 80
Cognitive Style Indicator
Scoring Key 80
Comparison Data
Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale
Scoring Key 81
Comparison Data
Core Self-Evaluation Scale
Scoring Key 82
Comparison Data
MANAgiNg StrESS ANd wEll-BEiNg 85
skill assessment 86
Diagnostic Surveys for Managing Stress and Well-Being
Managing Stress and Well-Being 86
Social Readjustment Rating Scale 86
Social Readjustment Rating Scale 88
Sources of Personal Stress 89
Flourishing Scale 90
skill learning 90
Managing Stress and Fostering Well-Being 90
Major Elements of Stress 91
Coping with Stress 92
Managing Stressors 94
Eliminating Stressors 95
Eliminating Time Stressors Through Time Management 95
Eliminating Encounter Stressors Through Community, Contribution, and Emotional Intelligence 100
Eliminating Situational Stressors Through Work Redesign 103
Eliminating Anticipatory Stressors Through Prioritizing, Goal Setting, and Small Wins 104
Developing Resiliency and Well-Being
Life Balance 106
Psychological Resiliency
Temporary Stress-Reduction Techniques
skill analYsis 114
Cases Involving Stress Management
The Turn of the Tide 114
The Case of the Missing Time 117
skill Practice 121
Exercises for Long-Term and Short-Run Stress Management and Well-Being 121
The Small-Wins Strategy 121
Life-Balance Analysis 123
Deep Relaxation 125
Monitoring and Managing Time
Generalized Reciprocity 127
skill aPPlication 128
Activities for Managing Stress
Suggested Assignments 128
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
Social Readjustment Rating Scale 130
Comparison Data
Sources of Personal Stress 131
Flourishing Scale 131
Comparison Data
SolviNg proBlEMS ANAlyticAlly ANd crEAtivEly 133
skill assessment 134
Diagnostic Surveys for Creative Problem Solving
Problem Solving, Creativity, and Innovation 134
Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively
skill learning 139
Problem Solving, Creativity, and Innovation
Steps in Analytical Problem Solving 139
How Creative Are You? © 134
Innovative Attitude Scale 136
Creative Style Assessment 137
Defining the Problem 140
Generating Alternatives 141
Evaluating Alternatives 141
Implementing the Solution 142
Limitations of the Analytical Problem-Solving Model
Impediments to Creative Problem Solving 143
Multiple Approaches to Creativity 143
Conceptual Blocks 148
Percy Spencer’s Magnetron 148
Spence Silver’s Glue 149
The Four Types of Conceptual Blocks 149
Review of Conceptual Blocks 157
Conceptual Blockbusting 157
Stages in Creative Thought 157
Methods for Improving Problem Definition 158
Ways to Generate More Alternatives 162
International Caveats 165
Hints for Applying Problem-Solving Techniques
Fostering Creativity in Others 166
Management Principles
skill analYsis 172
Cases Involving Problem Solving 172
Coke versus Pepsi 172
Creativity at Apple 173
skill Practice 175
Exercises for Applying Conceptual Blockbusting
Individual Assignment—Analytical Problem Solving (10 minutes) 175
Team Assignment—Creative Problem Solving (20 minutes) 176
Moving Up in the Rankings 177
Keith Dunn and McGuffey’s Restaurant 178
Creative Problem-Solving Practice 182
skill aPPlication 182
Activities for Solving Problems Creatively
Suggested Assignments 182
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
How Creative Are You?© 184
Scoring Key 184
Comparison Data 185
Innovative Attitude Scale
Comparison Data
Creative Style Assessment 186
Scoring Key 186
Comparison Data 186
InterPersonal skIlls 187
BuildiNg rElAtioNShipS By coMMuNicAtiNg SupportivEly 189
skill assessment 190
Diagnostic Surveys for Supportive Communication
skill learning 190
Building Positive Interpersonal Relationships 190
The Importance of Effective Communication 191
The Focus on Accuracy
What is Supportive Communication?
Coaching and Counseling 195
Coaching and Counseling Issues 195
Defensiveness and Disconfirmation 197
Principles of Supportive Communication 197
Supportive Communication Is Based on Congruence, Not Incongruence 197
Supportive Communication Is Descriptive, Not Evaluative 198
Supportive Communication Is Problem-Oriented, Not Person-Oriented 201
Supportive Communication Validates Rather Than Invalidates Individuals 202
Supportive Communication Is Specific (Useful), Not Global (Nonuseful) 204
Supportive Communication is Conjunctive, Not Disjunctive 205
Supportive Communication Is Owned, Not Disowned 205
Supportive Communication Requires Supportive Listening, Not One-Way
Message Delivery 206
The Personal Management Interview
International Caveats 214
skill analYsis 216
Cases Involving Building Positive Relationships
Find Somebody Else 216
Rejected Plans 217
skill Practice 219
Exercises for Diagnosing Communication Problems and Fostering Understanding 219
United Chemical Company 219
Byron vs. Thomas 221
Active Listening Exercise 223
skill aPPlication 224
Activities For Communicating Supportively
Suggested Assignments 224
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
gAiNiNg powEr ANd iNfluENcE 227
skill assessment
skill learning 228
Building a Strong Power Base and Using Influence Wisely
Is Power A Four-Letter Word? 229
Abuse of Power 230
Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power 232
Sources of Personal Power 232
Sources of Positional Power 237
Transforming Power into Influence 241
Influence Strategies: The Three Rs 241
The Pros and Cons of Each Strategy 244
Acting Assertively: Neutralizing Influence Attempts 247
skill analYsis 253
Case Involving Power and Influence
Dynica Software Solutions 253
skill Practice 254
Exercise for Gaining Power
Repairing Power Failures in Management Circuits 254
Exercise for Using Influence Effectively
Ann Lyman’s Proposal
Exercises for Neutralizing Unwanted Influence Attempts 256
Cindy’s Fast Foods 257
9:00 to 7:30 258
skill aPPlication 259
Activities for Gaining Power and Influence
Suggested Assignments 259
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
MotivAtiNg othErS 263
skill assessment
skill learning 264
Increasing Motivation and Performance 264
Diagnosing Work Performance Problems 265
Enhancing Individuals’ Abilities 266
Fostering a Motivating Work Environment 268
Elements of an Effective Motivation Program
Establish Clear Performance Expectations 270
Remove Obstacles to Performance 272
Reinforce Performance-Enhancing Behavior 273
Provide Salient Rewards 281
Be Fair and Equitable 284
Provide Timely Rewards and Accurate Feedback 284
skill analYsis 289
Case Involving Motivation Problems
Electro Logic 289
skill Practice 295
Exercises for Diagnosing Work Performance Problems
Joe Chaney 298
Work Performance Assessment 298
Exercise for Reshaping Unacceptable Behaviors
Shaheen Matombo 299
Andre Tate, Manager 299
Shaheen Matombo, Staff Member 300
skill aPPlication 301
Activities for Motivating Others
Suggested Assignments 301
Application Plan and Evaluation
SKILL PRACTICE Exercise for Reshaping Unacceptable Behaviors 303
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
MANAgiNg coNflict 305
skill assessment
skill learning 306
Interpersonal Conflict Management
Mixed Feelings about Conflict 307
Diagnosing the Type of Interpersonal Conflict
Conflict Focus 309
Conflict Source 310
Selecting the Appropriate Conflict Management Approach 312
Choosing Among the Five Strategies 315
Personal Preferences 316
Situational Factors 317
Resolving Interpersonal Confrontations Using the Collaborative Approach 319
A General Framework for Collaborative Problem Solving 319
The Four Phases of Collaborative Problem Solving 320
skill analYsis 332
Case Involving Interpersonal Conflict
Educational Pension Investments 332
skill Practice 336
Exercise for Diagnosing Sources of Conflict
SSS Software Management Problems
Exercises for Selecting an Appropriate Conflict Management Strategy 345
Bradley’s Barn 345
Avocado Computers 346
Phelps, Inc. 346
Exercises for Resolving Interpersonal Disputes
Alisa Moffatt 347
Can Larry Fit In? 351
Meeting at Hartford Manufacturing Company 352
skill aPPlication 358
Activities for Improving Managing Conflict Skills
Suggested Assignments 358
Application Plan and Evaluation
SKILL PRACTICE Exercises for Resolving Interpersonal Disputes 361
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
GrouP skIlls
EMpowEriNg ANd ENgAgiNg othErS 365
skill assessment
skill learning 366
Empowering and Engaging Others 366
The Meaning of Empowerment 367
Dimensions of Empowerment 368
Self-Efficacy 368
Self-Determination 369
Personal Consequence 370
Meaning 370
Trust 371
Review of Empowerment Dimensions
How to Develop Empowerment 372
A Clear Goal 372
Fostering Personal Mastery Experiences 373
Modeling 374
Providing Support 374
Emotional Arousal 374
Providing Information 375
Providing Resources 376
Connecting to Outcomes 376
Creating Confidence 377
Review of Empowerment Principles 378
Inhibitors to Empowerment 380
Attitudes about Subordinates 380
Personal Insecurities 380
Need For Control 380
Overcoming Inhibitors 381
Fostering Engagement
International Caveats
Deciding When to Engage Others 382
Deciding Whom to Engage 383
Deciding How to Engage Others 384
Review Of Engagement Principles 386
skill analYsis 389
Cases Involving Empowerment and Engagement
Minding the Store 389
Changing the Portfolio 390
skill Practice 391
Exercises for Empowerment 391
Executive Development Associates 391
Empowering Ourselves 395
Deciding to Engage Others 396
skill aPPlication 397
Activities for Empowerment and Engagement
Suggested Assignments 397
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
BuildiNg EffEctivE tEAMS ANd tEAMwork 401
skill assessment 402
Diagnostic Surveys for Building Effective Teams
Team Development Behaviors 402
Building Effective Teams and Teamwork
Diagnosing The Need For Team Building
skill learning 403
The Advantages of Teams 403
An Example of an Effective Team
Team Development 408
The Forming Stage 408
The Norming Stage 409
The Storming Stage 411
The Performing Stage 414
Leading Teams
Developing Credibility 417
Establish Smart Goals and Everest Goals
International Caveats 421
Team Membership 422
Advantageous Roles 422
Unproductive Roles 425
Providing Feedback 426
International Caveats 427
skill analYsis 428
Cases Involving Building Effective Teams
The Tallahassee Democrat’s ELITE Team 428
The Cash Register Incident 431
skill Practice 432
Exercises in Building Effective Teams
Leadership Roles in Teams 432
Team Diagnosis and Team Development Exercise
Winning the War on Talent 435
Team Performance Exercise 437
skill aPPlication 439
Activities for Building Effective Teams 439
Suggested Assignments 439
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
Diagnosing the Need for Team Building 441
Comparison Data
Leadership Roles in Teams (Examples of Correct Answers)
10 lEAdiNg poSitivE chANgE 443
skill assessment 444
Diagnostic Surveys for Leading Positive Change
Leading Positive Change 444
Reflected Best-Self Feedback 444
skill learning 446
Ubiquitous and Escalating Change 447
The Need for Frameworks 447
A Framework for Leading Positive Change
Establishing A Climate of Positivity 452
Creating Readiness for Change 457
Articulating a Vision of Abundance 460
Generating Commitment to the Vision 463
Fostering Sustainability 466
skill analYsis 471
Cases Involving Leading Positive Change
Corporate Vision Statements 471
Jim Mallozzi: Implementing Positive Change in Prudential Real Estate and Relocation 477
skill Practice 481
Exercises in Leading Positive Change
Reflected Best-Self Portrait 481
Positive Organizational Diagnosis Exercise
A Positive Change Agenda 483
skill aPPlication 483
Activities for Leading Positive Change
Suggested Assignments 483
Application Plan and Evaluation
scoring keYs anD comParison Data
Reflected Best-Self Feedback™ Exercise 485
sPeCIfIC CoMMunICatIon skIlls 487
Module A
MAkiNg orAl ANd writtEN prESENtAtioNS 489
skill learning 490
Making Oral and Written Presentations 490
Essential Elements of Effective Presentations 491
Formulate a Specific Strategy 491
Develop a Clear Structure 493
Support Your Points 495
Use an Enhancing Style 497
Style in Oral Communication 498
Style in Written Communication 501
Supplement your Presentation by Responding to Questions and Challenges 503
skill Practice 507
Exercises for Making Effective Oral and Written Presentations 507
Speaking as a Leader 507
Quality Circles at Battle Creek Foods 508
Observer’s Feedback form
Module B
coNductiNg iNtErviEwS 517
skill learning 518
Planning and Conducting Interviews
Planning the Interview 519
Conducting the Interview 523
Specific Types of Organizational Interviews 527
Information-Gathering Interviews 527
Employment-Selection Interviews 527
Performance-Appraisal Interviews 528
skill Practice 532
Exercises for Conducting Special-Purpose Interviews
Evaluating the New Employee-Orientation Program 532
Performance-Appraisal Interview with Chris Jakobsen 535
Employment-Selection Interview at Smith Farley Insurance 542
Observer’s Feedback form
Module c
coNductiNg MEEtiNgS 551
skill learning 552
Conducting Effective Meetings: A Short Guide for Meeting Managers and Meeting Participants 552
The Five P s of Effective Meetings 552
Suggestions for Group Members 557
skill Practice 560
Exercises for Conducting Meetings
Preparing and Conducting a Team Meeting at SSS Software 560
Role Diagnosis 560
Meeting Evaluation Worksheet 561
SSS Software In-Basket Memos, E-Mails, Faxes, and Voice Mails
aPPenDIx I Glossary
aPPenDIx II referenCes
P r e fa c e
new in this edition
• New to every Chapter Personal Inventory Assessments (P.I.A)
• Chapter 2 now includes a major focus not only on managing stress but also on
how to enhance and encourage well-being.
• Chapter 8 replaces the discussion on “delegation” with a focus on “engagement.”
• Research continues to appear on factors that predict managerial effectiveness
and skillful performance. Therefore, we have updated references, studies, and
examples to enhance each chapter’s currency.
• In an environment filled with instantaneous technology, sound bites of data, and
short attention spans, we have been motivated to shorten each of the book’s
chapters substantially. With these reductions, however, we have maintained the
empirical evidence and the foundational models and frameworks.
• In each chapter, references to video examples found in Pearson’s
MyManagementLab are noted.
Why Focus on Management Skill Development?
Given that a “skill development” course requires more time and effort than a course using the traditional lecture/discussion format, we are sometimes asked this question by
students, especially those who have relatively little work experience.
Reason #1: It focuses attention on what effective managers
actually “do.”
In an influential article, Henry Mintzberg (1975) argued that management education had
almost nothing to say about what managers actually do from day to day. He further faulted
management textbooks for introducing students to the leading theories about management while ignoring what is known about effective management practice. Sympathetic to
Mintzberg’s critique, we set out to identify the defining competencies of effective managers.
Although no two management positions are exactly the same, the research summarized in the Introduction highlights ten personal, interpersonal, and group skills that form
the core of effective management practice. Each chapter addresses one of these skills.
Personal Skills
1. Developing Self-Awareness
2. Managing Personal Stress and Well-Being
3. Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively
Interpersonal Skills
4. Building relationships by Communicating Supportively
5. Gaining Power and Influence
6. Motivating Others
7. Managing Conflict
Group Skills
8. Empowering and Engaging Others
9. Building Effective teams and teamwork
10. Leading Positive Change
Consistent with our focus on promoting effective management practice, the material in these chapters provides guidance for a variety of contemporary management
challenges, including: “How can I help others accept new goals, new ideas, new approaches?” “How can I invigorate those who feel outdated and left behind?” “How do I
help the ‘survivors’ of a downsizing pick up the pieces and move on?” “How do I help
people with very different agendas and philosophies work together, especially during periods of high stress and uncertainty?”
Anyone tempted to dismissively argue that the answers to these questions are “common sense” would do well to recall Will Rogers’ pithy observation: “Common sense ain’t
common.” In addition, the research reported in the Introduction suggests that, in many
cases, managers’ “common sense” isn’t “good sense.”
The premise of this book and associated course is that the key to effective management
practice is practicing what effective managers—those with “good sense”—do consistently.
Reason #2: It is consistent with proven principles of effective
teaching and learning.
A seasoned university professor advised a young colleague, “If your students aren’t learning, you’re not teaching—you’re just talking!” Here’s what some authorities on higher
education have to say about how effective teachers foster learning:
“All genuine learning is active, not passive. It is a process of discovery in which the
student is the main agent, not the teacher.” (Adler, 1982)
“Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in a
class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spilling out
answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past
experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of
themselves.” (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)
In their classic book, Bonwell and Elson (1991) list seven defining characteristics of active
1. Students are involved in more than passive listening.
2. Students are engaged in activities (e.g., reading, discussing, writing).
3. There is less emphasis placed on information transmission and greater
emphasis placed on developing student skills.
4. There is greater emphasis placed on the exploration of attitudes and values.
5. Student motivation is increased, especially in adult learners.
6. Students receive immediate feedback from their instructor and peers.
7. Students are involved in higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis,
Our goals in writing this book were to bridge the academic realm of theory and research
and the organizational realm of effective practice and to help students consistently translate proven principles from both realms into personal practice. To accomplish these goals,
we formulated a five-step “active” learning model, described in the Introduction. Based
on the positive feedback we’ve received from teachers and students, we can state with
confidence that the form of active learning pioneered in this book is a proven pedagogy for
management skill mastery.
MyManaGeMentlaB suGGesteD aCtIvItIes
For the 9th edition we the authors are excited that Pearson’s MyManagementLab has
been integrated fully into the text. These new features are outlined below. Making assessment activities available on line for students to complete before coming to class will allow
you the professor more discussion time during the class to review areas that students are
having difficulty in comprehending.
Watch It
Recommends a video clip that can be assigned to students for outside classroom viewing
or that can be watched in the classroom. The video corresponds to the chapter material
and is accompanied by multiple choice questions that re-enforce student’s comprehension
of the chapter content.
Personal Inventory Assessments (PIA)
Students learn better when they can connect what they are learning to their personal
experience. PIA (Personal Inventory Assessments) is a collection of online exercises designed
to promote self-reflection and engagement in students, enhancing their ability to connect
with concepts taught in principles of management, organizational behavior, and human
resource management classes. Assessments are assignable by instructors who can then track
students’ completions. Student results include a written explanation along with a graphic
display that shows how their results compare to the class as a whole. Instructors will also
have access to this graphic representation of results to promote classroom discussion.
DetaIleD ChaPter By ChaPter ChanGes
Based on suggestions from reviewers, instructors, and students, we have made a number
of changes in the ninth edition of Developing Management Skills.
• Chapter 2 now includes a major focus not only on managing stress—usually
observed to be a negative influence on individuals—but it focuses on how to
enhance and encourage well-being. Stress can be turned to good outcomes if
managed effectively, and this 9th edition adopts this positive approach. It highlights ways to flourish and enhance well-being even in the presence of stressful
• Chapter 8 replaces the discussion on “delegation” with a focus on “engagement.”
The theme of employee engagement has become a very important topic in modern
organizations as they attempt to enhance their performance and help their employees flourish. That is, employee engagement has become a very hot topic. This
chapter provides a framework that helps you engage employees effectively.
• In an environment filled with instantaneous technology, sound bites of data, and
short attention spans, we have been motivated to shorten each of the book’s
chapters substantially. With these reductions, however, we have maintained the
empirical evidence and the foundational models and frameworks that distinguish
this book from others on the market. We have maintained the scientific and
scholarly basis for the prescriptions in each of the chapters because, to be effective managers, students need more substance than found in traditional airport
bookstore advice.
• Research continues to appear on factors that predict managerial effectiveness and
skillful performance. Therefore, we have updated references, studies, and examples to enhance each chapter’s currency. Whereas many of the classic studies and
foundational investigations remain in the text, you will find many up-dated studies
and examples through the book. This is also the case with exercises, cases, and
assessment instruments.
• In each chapter, references to video examples found in Pearson’s
MyManagementLab are noted. You will want to use these video supplements to
illustrate certain concepts and practices discussed in the chapters. They provide
real examples of management skill practices in the workplace.
tips for Getting the Most out of this Course
Whether you are an undergraduate or MBA student, or an experienced manager, based on
our years of teaching management skills, here are some suggestions for making this course
a personally meaningful learning experience:
• Read the Introduction carefully. Although this is not a typical management textbook, it is important that you understand its distinctive learner-focused features,
especially the five-step learning model: Skill Assessment, Skill Learning, Skill
Analysis, Skill Practice, and Skill Application. You’ll also find informative research
on how much managers’ actions impact individual and organizational performance and the characteristics of effective managers.
• Thoughtfully complete the Skill Assessment surveys for each chapter. These diagnostic tools are designed to help you identify which specific aspects of each skill
topic most warrant your personal attention.
• Carefully study the Behavioral Guidelines and the summary model at the conclusion of the Skill Learning section of each chapter before reading that section. These
written and graphical summaries are designed to bridge the research-informed
description of each topic with the skill development activities that follow. To help
you internalize research-informed “good sense,” be sure to use the Behavioral
Guidelines as your frame of reference when reading and discussing Skill Analysis
cases and participating in Skill Practice and Skill Application exercises.
• Be sure to complete the Skill Application exercises in each chapter. Management
skill mastery requires out-of-class skill practice. How to do this is pretty straightforward if you are currently working in an organization, regardless of whether you
are an experienced manager or a new, part-time employee. Whether or not you
are currently employed, we encourage you to seek out skill practice opportunities
in all aspects of your life, including working in assigned teams in this and other
courses, planning social events for a campus or community organization, counseling a troubled sibling or friend, managing end-of-semester deadlines, or handling a
difficult issue with a boy/girlfriend or spouse. The sooner you begin—and the more
you persist in—practicing what you learn in this course, the more you’ll be able to
count on these skills as “automatic responses” when you need them as a manager.
InstruCtor resourCes
At the Instructor Resource Center, www.pearsonhighered.com/irc, instructors can easily
register to gain access to a variety of instructor resources available with this text in downloadable format. If assistance is needed, our dedicated technical support team is ready to
help with the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit http://247.pearsoned.
com for answers to frequently asked questions and toll-free user support phone numbers.
The following supplements are available with this text:
• Instructor’s Resource Manual
• Test Bank
• TestGen® Computerized Test Bank
• PowerPoint Presentation
2015 QualItatIve BusIness vIDeo lIBrary
Additional videos illustrating the most important subject topics are available in
MyManagementLab, under the Instructor Resources: Business Today.
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In addition to the informal feedback we have received from colleagues around the world,
we would especially like to thank the following people who have formally reviewed material and provided valuable feedback, vital to the revision of this and previous editions:
Richard Allan, University of Tennessee–
Joseph S Anderson, Northern Arizona
Forrest F. Aven, University of Houston
Lloyd Baird, Boston University
Bud Baker, Wright State University
John D. Bigelow, Boise State University
Ralph R. Braithwaite, University of
Julia Britt, California State University
Tim Bothell, Brigham Young University
David Cherrington, Brigham Young
John Collins, Syracuse University
Kerri Crowne, Temple University
Joseph V. DePalma, Farleigh Dickerson
Todd Dewett, Wright State University
Andrew J. Dubrin, Rochester Institute
of Technology
Steven Edelson, Temple University
Crissie M. Frye, Eastern Michigan
Norma Givens, Fort Valley State University
Barbara A. Gorski, St. Thomas University
Sara Grant, New York University
David Hampton, San Diego State
Jason Harris-Boundy. San Francisco
State University
Stanley Harris, Auburn University
Richard E. Hunt, Rockhurst College
Daniel F. Jennings, Baylor University
Avis L. Johnson, University of Akron
Jay T. Knippen, University of South
Roland Kushner, Lafayette College
Roy J. Lewicki, Ohio State University
Michael Lombardo, Center for Creative
Charles C. Manz, University of
Ralph F. Mullin, Central Missouri State
Thomas J. Naughton, Wayne State
J. Randolph New, University of
Jon L. Pierce, University of Minnesota–
Lyman Porter, University of California–
Lyle F. Schoenfeldt, Appalachian State
Jacop P. Siegel, University of Toronto
Charles Smith, Hofstra University
Noel M. Tichy, University of Michigan
Wanda V. Trenner, Ferris State
Ulya Tsolmon, Brigham Young University
Kenneth M. York, Oakland University
We especially thank our collaborators who adapted the book for the European and
Australian markets as well as those who translated Developing Management Skills into
Spanish, Russian, Chinese, and Dutch.
We are grateful for the assistance of many dedicated associates who have helped us
continually upgrade and enhance Developing Management Skills. We wish to acknowledge
our colleague, Jeffrey Thompson, Director of the Romney Institute of Public Management,
Brigham Young University. Jeff has been a valuable collaborator on our recent revisions and
has become a major part of the authoring team.
We would also like to thank Kris Ellis-Levy, Sarah Holle, Rebecca Groves, Meghan
DeMaio, and Judy Leale of Pearson Education. In addition, we’d like to express our gratitude
to Kristin Jobe of Integra-Chicago for her expert assistance with this edition, as well as Erikson
Daniel Conkling, Ivy Tech Community College/Northeast and Linda Hoffman, Ivy Tech
Community College/Fort Wayne for their contributions to the MyLab assessment content.
Finally, and most importantly, we express appreciation to our families for their ongoing
patience and support, which is reflected in their willingness to share their time with this competing “labor of love”—and to forgive our own gaps between common sense and common
David A. Whetten
Kim S. Cameron
ManageMent ConCepts
The Critical Role of Management Skills
■ The Importance of Competent Managers
■ The Skills of Effective Managers
■ What Are Management Skills?
■ Improving Management Skills
■ An Approach to Skill Development
■ Leadership and Management
■ Contents of the Book
■ Organization of the Book
■ Diversity and Individual Differences
■ Summary

Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS)
What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager?
■ SSS Software In-Basket Exercise

Scoring Key and
coMpariSon Data
The Critical
Role of
1. Introduce the Importance
of management SkIllS
2. IdentIfy eSSentIal
management SkIllS
3. explaIn a learnIng
model for developIng
management SkIllS
4. revIew the contentS of
the Book
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The Critical Role of Management Skills
No one doubts that the twenty-first century will continue to be characterized by chaotic,
transformational, rapid-fire change. In fact, almost no sane person is willing to predict
what the world will be like 50, 20, or even 10 years from now. Change is just too rapid
and ubiquitous. Three quarters of the content on the web was not available three years
ago. The development of “nanobombs” has caused some people to predict that personal
computers and desktop monitors will land on the scrap heap of obsolescence within 20
years. The new computers will be a product of etchings on molecules leading to personalized data processors injected into the bloodstream, implanted in eyeglasses, or included
in wristwatches.
Warren Bennis, a colleague of ours, half-jokingly predicted that the factory of the future
would have only two employees, a person and a dog. The person would be there to feed
the dog. The dog would be there to keep the person from touching the equipment! Almost
no one would argue with the claim that “permanent white water” best characterizes our
current environment. Almost everything is in flux, from our technology and methods of
transacting business to the nature of education and the definition of the family.
Despite all this change in our environment, there is something that has remained relatively constant. With minor variations and stylistic differences, what have not changed
in several thousand years are the basic skills that lie at the heart of effective, satisfying,
growth-producing human relationships. Freedom, dignity, trust, love, and respect in relationships have always been among the goals of human beings, and the same principles
that brought about those outcomes in the second or seventeenth centuries still bring
them about in the twenty-first century. Despite our circumstances, in other words, and
despite the technological resources we have available to us, the same basic human skills
still lie at the heart of effective human interaction.
This book is built on the presumption that developing management skills—that
is, the skills needed to manage one’s own life as well as relationships with others—is a
ceaseless endeavor. These skills were largely the same a century ago as they are today.
The basic behavioral principles that lie at the foundation of these skills are timeless. This
is one reason why the shelves of bookstores. blogs, and on-line newsletters are filled with
prescriptions of how one more executive or one more company struck it rich or beat out
the competition. Thousands of books trumpet prescriptions for how to be successful in
business, or in life. Many of these books have made it to the best-seller lists and have
enjoyed lengthy stays.
Our intention in this book is not to try to duplicate the popular appeal of the bestselling books nor to utilize the common formula of recounting anecdotal incidents of successful organizations or well-known managers. We have produced a book that remains
true to, and is based on, social science and business research. We want to share with you
what is known and what is not known about how to develop management skills and
how to foster productive, healthy, satisfying, and growth-producing relationships with
others in your work setting. Developing Management Skills is designed to help you actually improve your personal management competencies—to change your behavior.
This book, therefore, serves more as a practicum or a guide to effective managerial
behavior than a description of what someone else has done to successfully manage an
organization. It will surely help you think, and it will provide examples of success, but
it will have failed if it also does not help you behave more competently in your own life.
Whereas the skills focused on in this book are called “management skills,” their
relevance is not limited just to an organization or work setting. This book could be
retitled “life skills,” or even “leadership skills.” We focus mainly on work settings here
because our primary goal is to help you prepare for and improve your own competency
in a managerial role. You will discover, however, that these skills are applicable in most
areas of your life—with families, friends, volunteer organizations, and your community.
In the next section, we review some of the scientific evidence that demonstrates
how management skills are associated with personal and organizational success, and we
review several studies of the key management skills that seem to be the most important
in our modern-day environment. It is those key skills that this book has targeted. We
then describe a model and a methodology for helping you to develop management skills.
A large number of fads abound proclaiming a new way to be a leader, get rich, or
both, but our intent is to rely on a proven methodology that has grounding in the scientific literature. We present what has been shown to be a superior process for improving
management skills, and we base our claims on scholarly evidence. This Introduction
concludes with a brief description of the organization of the rest of the book and
the importance of keeping in mind individual differences among people.
The Importance of Competent Managers
In the last couple of decades, an abundance of evidence has been produced demonstrating
that skillful management is the single most powerful determinant of organizational success.
These studies have been conducted across numerous industry sectors, international settings,
and organization types. The research findings now make it almost unquestionable that if
organizations want to succeed, they must have competent, skillful managers.
For example, in one study of 968 firms, representing all major industries in the
United States, organizations whose managers effectively managed their people—that is,
they implemented effective people management strategies and demonstrated personal
competency in management skills—had, on the average, a decrease in turnover of more
than 7 percent, increased profits of $3,814 per employee, $27,044 more in sales per
employee, and $18,641 more in stock market value per employee, compared to firms
that had less effective people management (Huselid, 1995; Pfeffer & Veiga, 1999). In a
follow-up study of 702 firms, shareholder wealth was an amazing $41,000 per employee
higher in companies demonstrating strong people management skills than in firms that
had a lower emphasis on people management (Huselid & Becker, 1997).
A study of German firms in 10 industrial sectors produced similar results:
“Companies that place workers at the core of their strategies produce higher long-term
returns . . . than their industry peers” (Blimes, Wetzker, & Xhonneux, 1997). A study
of five-year survivability in 136 nonfinancial companies that issued IPOs in the late
1980s found that the effective management of people was the most significant factor
in predicting longevity, even when accounting for industry type, size, and profits. Firms
that did a good job of managing people tended to survive; others did not (Welbourne &
Andrews, 1996).
A study by Hanson (1986) investigated the factors that best accounted for financial
success over a five-year span in 40 major manufacturing firms. The five most powerful predictors were identified and assessed. They included market share (assuming that
the higher the market share of a firm, the higher its profitability); firm capital intensity
(assuming that the more a firm is automated and up-to-date in technology and equipment,
the more profitable it is); size of the firm in assets (assuming that economies of scale and
efficiency can be used in large firms to increase profitability); industry average return on
sales (assuming that firms would reflect the performance of a highly profitable industry);
and the ability of managers to effectively manage their people (assuming that an emphasis
on good people management helps produce profitability in firms). The results revealed that
one factor—the ability to manage people effectively—was three times more powerful than
all other factors combined in accounting for firm financial success over a five-year period!
We repeat, good management was more important than all other factors taken together in
predicting profitability.
This is just a small sampling of studies that indicate overwhelmingly that good
management fosters financial success, whereas less effective management fosters financial
distress. Successful organizations have managers with well-developed management skills.
Moreover, the data are clear that management skills are more important in accounting for
success than industry, environment, competition, and economic factors combined.
The Skills of Effective Managers
What, then, differentiates effective managers from less effective managers? If developing management skills is so crucial for organizational success, what skills ought to be
the focus of our attention? The management literature is filled with lists of attributes,
behaviors, orientations, and strategies for enhancing successful performance. In writing
this book, we wanted to identify the skills and competencies that separate extraordinarily
effective performers from the rest of us. So, in addition to reviewing the managerial and
leadership literatures, we also identified 402 individuals who were rated as highly effective managers in their own organizations in the fields of business, health care, education,
and state government by asking senior officers to name the most effective managers in
their organizations. We then interviewed those people to determine what attributes were
associated with managerial effectiveness. We asked questions such as:
How have you become so successful in this organization?
❏ Who fails and who succeeds in this organization and why?
❏ If you had to train someone to take your place, what knowledge and what skills
would you make certain that person possessed in order to perform successfully as
your successor?
❏ If you could design an ideal curriculum or training program to teach you to be a
better manager, what would it contain?

Think of other effective managers you know. What skills do they demonstrate that
explain their success?
Table 1 Skills of Effective Managers—One Study
1. verbal communication (including listening)
2. managing time and stress
3. rational and creative decision making
4. recognizing, defining, and solving problems
5. motivating and influencing others
6. delegating and engaging others
7. Setting goals and articulating a vision
8. Self-awareness
9. team building
10. managing conflict
Our analysis of the interviews produced about 60 characteristics of effective managers. The 10 identified most often are listed in Table 1. Not surprisingly, these 10 characteristics are all behavioral skills. They are not personality attributes or styles, nor are they
generalizations such as “luck,” “charisma,” or “timing.” They also are common across
industries, levels, and job responsibilities. The characteristics of effective managers are
not a secret.
What Are Management Skills?
There are several defining characteristics of management skills that differentiate them
from other kinds of characteristics and practices. First, management skills are behavioral.
They are not personality attributes or stylistic tendencies. Management skills consist of
actions that lead to positive outcomes. Skills can be observed by others, unlike attributes
that are purely mental, stylistic, or are embedded in personality.
Second, management skills are controllable. The performance of these behaviors is
under your own control. Skills may involve other people and require cognitive work, but
they are behaviors that you can govern yourself.
Third, management skills are developable. Performance can improve. Unlike IQ or
certain personality or temperament attributes that remain relatively constant throughout
life, you can improve your competency in skill performance through practice and feedback. You can progress from less competence to more competence in management skills,
and that outcome is the primary objective of this book.
Fourth, management skills are interrelated and overlapping. It is difficult to demonstrate just one skill in isolation from others. Skills are not simplistic, repetitive behaviors,
but they are integrated sets of complex responses. Fifth, management skills are sometimes contradictory or paradoxical. For example, the core management skills are neither
all soft and humanistic in orientation nor all hard-driving and directive. They are oriented
neither toward teamwork and interpersonal relations exclusively nor toward individualism and technical entrepreneurship exclusively. A variety of skills are typical of the most
effective managers, and some of them appear incompatible.
To illustrate, Cameron and Tschirhart (1988) assessed the skill performance of more
than 500 midlevel and upper-middle managers in about 150 organizations. The most
frequently mentioned 25 management skills taken from about a dozen studies in the academic literature (such as those in Table 2) were measured. Statistical analyses revealed
that the skills fell into four main groups or clusters. One group of skills focused on participative and human relations skills (for example, supportive communication and team
building), while another group focused on just the opposite, that is, competitiveness and
control (for example, assertiveness, power, and influence skills). A third group focused on
innovativeness and individual entrepreneurship (for example, creative problem solving),
while a fourth group emphasized the opposite type of skills, namely, maintaining order
and rationality (for example, managing time and rational decision making). One conclusion from that study was that effective managers are required to demonstrate paradoxical
skills. That is, the most effective managers are both participative and hard-driving, both
nurturing and competitive. They were able to be flexible and creative while also being
controlled, stable, and rational (see Cameron, Quinn, DeGraff, & Thakor, 2014). Our
objective in this book is to help you develop that kind of behavioral competency and
Improving Management Skills
It is a bit unnerving that while average IQ scores have increased in the population over
the last half-century, social and emotional intelligence scores have actually declined. In
the population in general, people are less skilled at managing themselves and managing
others than they were 50 years ago (Goleman, 1998). While average IQ scores have
jumped approximately 25 points, emotional intelligence scores (EQ) have fallen. In a
recent survey of 110 Fortune 500 CEOs, 87 percent were satisfied with the level of
competence and analytic skills of business school graduates, 68 percent were satisfied
with conceptual skills of graduates, but only 43 percent of the CEOs were satisfied with
graduates’ management skills, and only 28 percent were satisfied with their interpersonal
skills and EQ!
The good news is that improvement in developing management skills has been
found in both students and managers who have been exposed to in the learning model
presented in Developing Management Skills. For example, MBA students showed
improvement of from 50 to 300 percent on social skills over two years by enrolling
in courses based on the approach to developing management skills presented here.
A greater amount of improvement occurred among students who applied these skills
to aspects of their lives outside the classroom. In addition, a cohort of 45- to 55-yearold executives produced the same results as the MBA students. They also improved
dramatically in their management skills even though most were already experienced
in senior managerial positions (Boyatzis, 1996, 2000, 2005; Boyatzis, Cowen, &
Kolb, 1995; Boyatzis, Leonard, Rhee, & Wheeler, 1996; Leonard, 1996; Rhee, 1997;
Wheeler, 1999).
An Approach to Skill Development
The method that has been found to be most successful in helping individuals develop
management skills is based on social learning theory (Bandura, 1977; Boyatzis et al.,
1995; Davis & Luthans, 1980). This approach marries rigorous conceptual knowledge
with opportunities to practice and apply observable behaviors. It relies on cognitive work
as well as behavioral work. This learning model, as originally formulated, consisted of
four steps: (1) the presentation of behavioral principles or action guidelines, generally using traditional instruction methods such as lecture and discussion; (2) demonstration of
the principles by means of cases, films, scripts, or incidents; (3) opportunities to practice
the principles through role plays or exercises; and (4) feedback on performance from
peers, instructors, or experts.
Our own experience in teaching complex management skills, as well as research
on management skills development among MBA students (e.g., Boyatzis et al., 1995;
Vance, 1993) has demonstrated that three important modifications are necessary in order
for this model to be most effective. First, the behavioral principles must be grounded in
social science theory and in reliable research results. To ensure the validity of the behavioral guidelines being prescribed, the learning approach must include scientifically based
knowledge about the effects of the management principles being presented.
Second, you must be aware of your current level of skill competency and be motivated to improve upon that level. Most of us receive very little feedback about our
current level of skill competency. Most organizations provide some kind of annual or
semiannual evaluation (for example, course grades in school or performance appraisal interviews in firms), but these evaluations are usually infrequent and narrow in scope, and
they fail to assess performance in most critical skill areas. To help you understand what
skills to improve and why, an assessment activity must be part of the model.
In addition, most people find change uncomfortable and therefore avoid taking the
risk to develop new behavior patterns. An assessment activity in the learning model helps
encourage you to change by illuminating your strengths and weaknesses. This makes it
possible to target your improvement efforts more specifically. Assessment activities generally take the form of self-evaluation instruments, case studies, or problems that help
highlight personal strengths and weaknesses in a particular skill area.
Third, an application component is needed in the learning model. Most management skill training takes place in a classroom setting where feedback is immediate, and
it is relatively safe to try out new behaviors and make mistakes. Therefore, transferring
learning to an actual job setting is often problematic. Application exercises help to apply
classroom learning to examples from the real world of management. Application exercises often take the form of an outside-of-class intervention, a consulting assignment,
self-analysis through journal writing, or a problem-centered intervention, which you can
analyze to determine its degree of success or failure.
In summary, evidence suggests that a five-step learning model is most effective for
helping you develop management skills (see Cameron & Whetten, 1984; Kolb, 1984;
Vance, 1993; Whetten & Cameron, 1983). Table 2 outlines such a model. Step 1 involves
the assessment of current levels of skill competency and knowledge of the behavioral
Table 2 A Model for Developing Management Skills
1. Skill assessment
Survey instruments
role plays
assess current level of skill competence and
knowledge; create readiness to change.
2. Skill learning
written text
Behavioral guidelines
teach correct principles and present a rationale
for behavioral guidelines.
3. Skill analysis
provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate
skill performance. analyze behavioral principles and
reasons they work.
4. Skill practice
role plays
practice behavioral guidelines. adapt principles to
personal style. receive feedback and assistance.
5. Skill application
assignments (behavioral and
transfer classroom learning to real-life situations.
foster ongoing personal development.
principles. Step 2 consists of the presentation of validated, scientifically based principles
and guidelines for effective skill performance. Step 3 is an analysis step in which models
or cases are presented in order to analyze behavioral principles in real organizational settings. This step also helps demonstrate how the behavioral guidelines can be adapted to
different personal styles and circumstances. Step 4 consists of practice exercises in which
experimentation can occur and immediate feedback can be received in a relatively safe
environment. Step 5 is the application of the skill to a real-life setting outside the classroom with follow-up analysis of the relative success of that application.
Research on the effectiveness of training programs using this general learning model
has shown that it produces results superior to those based on more traditional lecturediscussion-case method approaches (Boyatzis et al., 1995; Burnaska, 1976; Kolb, 1984;
Latham & Saari, 1979; Moses & Ritchie, 1976; Porras & Anderson, 1981; Smith, 1976;
Vance, 1993).
To assist you in improving your own management skills, this book emphasizes practicing management skills rather than just reading about them. We have organized the
book with this specific approach in mind.
Leadership and Management
Before outlining the organization of this book, we want to discuss briefly the place of
leadership in this volume. Some writers have differentiated between the concepts of
“leadership” and “management” (Bass, 1990; Katzenbach, 1995; Nair, 1994; Quinn,
2000; Tichy, 1999). Some have wondered why we concentrate on “management”
skills instead of “leadership” skills in this book. We have also been asked by professors,
business executives, and students why we have not either changed the title of the book
to Developing Leadership Skills, or at least included one chapter on leadership in this
volume. These queries and suggestions are important and have motivated us to clarify at
the outset of the book what we mean by management, and why our approach lies at the
heart of leadership as typically defined.
One of the most popular models of leadership is based on the “Competing Values
Framework,” an organizing framework for leadership and managerial skills. It was developed by examining the criteria used to evaluate organizational performance (Cameron
et al., 2014; Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Extensive research has been conducted on
this framework over the past three decades, and a brief explanation will help clarify the
relationship between management and leadership skills. This research has shown that
both leadership and management skills fall into four clusters or categories as illustrated
in Figure 1.
In order to be an effective leader and manager, the research suggests that you must
be competent in: (1) people skills, collaboration, teamwork, and interpersonal communication. These are referred to in the academic literature as clan skills. (2) creativity, innovativeness, entrepreneurship, and fashioning a vision for the future. These are referred
to in the academic literature as adhocracy skills; (3) producing results, making fast decisions, competing aggressively, and being comfortable taking charge. These are referred to
in the academic literature as market skills; and (4) maintaining stability and predictability,
increasing quality, being efficient, and maintaining control. These are referred to in the
academic literature as hierarchy skills.
Clan skills include those required to build effective interpersonal relationships and
develop others (e.g., building teamwork, communicating supportively). Adhocracy skills
include those required to manage the future, innovate, and promote change (e.g., solving
problems creatively, articulating an energizing vision). Market skills include those required to compete effectively and manage external relationships (e.g., motivating others,
using power and influence). Hierarchy skills include those required to maintain control
Figure 1
Leadership and Management Skills Organized by the Competing Values Framework
Solving Problems Creatively
Leading Positive Change
Fostering Innovation
Communicating Supportively
Building Teams and Teamwork
Motivating Others
Gaining Power and Influence
Managing Conflict
Managing Personal Stress
Managing Time
Maintaining Self-Awareness
Analytical Problem Solving
and stability (e.g., managing personal stress and time, solving problems rationally) (see
Cameron & Quinn, 2006).
In Figure 1, the two top quadrants in the Competing Values Framework—clan and
adhocracy—are usually associated with leadership. The two bottom quadrants—market
and hierarchy—are usually associated with management. Traditionally, leadership has
been used to describe what individuals do under conditions of change. When organizations are dynamic and undergoing transformation, people at the top are expected to
exhibit leadership (i.e., pay attention to clan and adhocracy issues). Management, on the
other hand, has traditionally been used to describe what executives do under conditions
of stability. Thus, management has been linked with the status quo (i.e., pay attention to
market and hierarchy issues).
In addition, leadership has sometimes been defined as “doing the right things,”
whereas management has been defined as “doing things right.” Leaders have been said
to focus on setting the direction, articulating a vision, transforming individuals and organizations, and creating something new. Managers have been described as focusing on
monitoring, directing, and refining current performance. Leadership has been equated
with dynamism, vibrancy, and charisma; management with hierarchy, equilibrium,
and control.
However, the recent research is clear that such distinctions between leadership and
management are neither accurate nor useful (Cameron, Quinn, DeGraff, & Thakor, 2014;
Quinn, 2000; Tichy, 1993, 1999). Managers cannot be successful without being good
leaders, and leaders cannot be successful without being good managers. No longer do
organizations and individuals have the luxury of holding on to the status quo; worrying about doing things right but failing to do the right things; keeping the system stable
instead of leading change and improvement; monitoring current performance instead of
formulating a vision of the future; concentrating on equilibrium and control instead of
vibrancy and charisma. Effective management and leadership are inseparable. The skills
required to do one are also required of the other.
No organization in a postindustrial, hyper-turbulent, twenty-first-century environment will survive without executives capable of providing both management and leadership. Leading change and managing stability, establishing vision and accomplishing
objectives, breaking the rules and monitoring conformance, although paradoxical, all are
required to be successful.
All of us, in other words, need to develop competencies that will enhance our ability
to be both leaders and managers. The specific skills in this book represent all four quadrants in the Competing Values Framework of leadership. They serve as the foundation
for effective management and for effective leadership. The skills contained in this book
cover both management skills and leadership skills. We have chosen to use the label
“management skills” to subsume the skills associated with leadership as well as with
management. When you are promoted, you will be given a managerial role, and your
success in that role will depend on the extent to which you have mastered specific skills.
You can act as a leader in any context or role, so this book is designed to prepare you to
be an effective manager as well as an effective leader.
Contents of the Book
Again, this book focuses on the skills that research has identified as critically important
for successful management and leadership. Part I contains three chapters on personal
skills: Developing Self-Awareness, Managing Stress and Well-Being, and Solving Problems
Analytically and Creatively. These skills focus on issues that may not involve other people
but instead relate to the management of the self—hence they are called personal skills.
Each chapter, however, really includes a cluster of related behaviors, not just one single,
simple skill. These clusters of interrelated behaviors comprise the overall management
skill indicated in the chapter’s title. Figure 2 also points out that each skill cluster is
related to and overlaps with other personal management skills, so each relies at least
partially on the others to be performed successfully.
Part II focuses on interpersonal skills: Building Relationships by Communicating
Supportively, Gaining Power and Influence, Motivating Others, and Managing Conflict.
These skills focus primarily on issues that arise in your interactions with other people.
Overlap exists among these skills, of course, so that you must rely on parts of many skill
areas in order to perform any one skill effectively.
Part III includes three chapters on group skills: Empowering and Engaging Others,
Building Effective Teams and Teamwork, and Leading Positive Change. These skills
focus on key issues that arise when you are involved with groups of people either as a
leader or as a member of the group. As with all the skills in the book, overlap occurs
among the group skills as well as with the personal and interpersonal skills. In other
words, as you progress from personal to interpersonal to group skills, the core competencies developed in the previous skill area help support successful performance of the
new skill area.
In addition to the ten core management skills in Parts I, II, and III, the supplemental Part IV chapters contain three additional communications skills: Making Oral
and Written Presentations, Conducting Interviews, and Conducting Meetings. These
supplements cover specialized communication skills that are especially relevant for
students who have had little managerial experience or skill training such as writing reports, giving class presentations, interviewing others, or conducting group
Figure 2 A Model of Essential Management Skills
stress and
Gain power
and influence
Building effective
Appendix I contains a glossary of key terms in the text; and Appendix II lists references for excerpted material in the book.
Organization of the Book
Each chapter is organized on the basis of the learning model summarized in Table 3.
Specifically, each chapter begins with Skill Assessment instruments, followed by the
largest section of the chapter, an explanation of the key behavioral guidelines along with
evidence from research that the principles identified are effective in practice. This is the
Skill Learning section. The third section is labeled Skill Analysis, and it provides brief
case histories that illustrate both effective and ineffective applications of the behavioral
The Skill Practice section provides exercises, problems, and role-play assignments in
order for you to practice the behavioral guidelines in a safe, simulated managerial situation and to receive feedback from peers and instructors. The last section of each chapter
is Skill Application. It contains a form to help you generate your own improvement
agenda, as well as assignments and ideas for applying the skill in an out-of-class situation.
Table 3 The Organization of Each Chapter
Skill Assessment
Instruments designed to identify your current level of skill competency, your styles, and/or key
dimensions of the skill. these instruments can be used to identify individual differences, issues
surrounding diversity, and areas for personal improvement plans.
Skill Learning
Behavioral guidelines and key principles associated with the skill are explained. Scientific
research is used as the basis for prescribed skill performance. clarifying how to successfully
develop and perform the skill is the purpose of this section.
Skill Analysis
cases and examples are presented in order to provide examples of successful and unsuccessful skill performance. analytic problem solving is facilitated as recommendations are made for
what the key issues are, how performance might be modified, and why success was achieved.
Skill Practice
exercises and role plays make it possible for individuals to actually practice the skill. feedback
from peers and the instructor will facilitate improvement of the skill in a setting where failure is
not costly.
Skill Application
Suggested assignments are provided so that the skill can be applied in a real-life setting. a
feedback mechanism is also suggested so that individuals analyze their own success in applying the skill outside the classroom. Improvement plans should always be associated with the
application exercises.
Diversity and Individual Differences
One reason developing management skills is difficult is because all of us possess our own
unique styles, personalities, and inclinations. We all know that everyone doesn’t react in
the same way to similar circumstances. It is impossible, therefore, to manage each relationship in exactly the same way, or even to behave the same way from one encounter
to the next. Sensitivity to individual differences is an important part of an effective manager’s repertoire.
A great deal of research has been conducted on cultural differences, gender differences, ethnic differences, and age differences in organizations (e.g., Cox, 1994; Cox
& Beal, 1997). While we will not summarize that extensive research, we do want to
highlight the importance of being sensitive to individuality. Two kinds of sensitivities are
necessary: one to the uniqueness displayed by each person, and the other to distinctive
but general patterns of behavior that characterize groups of people. For example, it is
essential that you not only become aware of, but also value and capitalize on the differences that characterize people with whom you associate. The general tendency of us
all is to fear or oppose those who are different from us, so we provide a framework to
help us all better understand and appreciate differences. We don’t emphasize so much
managing diversity as we do diagnosing individual differences so they can be valued,
understood, and appreciated.
In Chapter 1, Developing Self-Awareness, we explain a model developed by Frans
Trompenaars which relies on seven dimensions found to differ across national and
cultural boundaries. These dimensions have been found to be very helpful in assisting
people to understand key differences in others. They are: universalism versus particularism, individualism versus communitarianism, specificity versus diffuseness, neutral
versus affective, achievement versus ascription oriented, internal versus external, and
past versus present versus future time emphasis. These dimensions will help you adjust
your behaviors when you interact with others from a different culture or nationality.
Whereas the behavioral principles upon which the management skills are based are applicable across cultures, genders, ethnic groups, and age cohorts, important nuances may be
required of you as you practice among people characterized by these differences. Women
may not behave the same as men. Japanese colleagues may not respond the same as
German colleagues. Individuals in their sixties may not see the world the same as someone in their twenties. So being sensitive to and valuing individual differences is key.
In sum, Developing Management Skills is not intended just for individuals who plan to
enter managerial positions or who currently manage organizations. It is meant to help
you better manage many aspects of your life and relationships. It is intended to help you
actually change your behavior, to improve your competence, and to become more savvy
in your relationships with different kinds of people. It is intended to improve your social
and emotional intelligence. John Holt (1964) succinctly summarized our intention by
equating management skill to intelligence:
When we talk about intelligence, we do not mean the ability to get a good
score on a certain kind of test or even the ability to do well in school; these
are at best only indicators of something larger, deeper, and far more important.
By intelligence we mean a style of life, a way of behaving in various situations.
The true test of intelligence is not how much we know how to do, but how we
behave when we don’t know what to do. (p. 165)
Fostering the development of such intelligence is the goal of Developing
Management Skills.
Supplementary materIal
Diagnostic Survey and Exercises
Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS)
Step 1: To get an overall profile of your level of skill competence, respond to the
following statements using the rating scale below. Please rate your behavior as it is,
not as you would like it to be. If you have not engaged in a specific activity, answer
according to how you think you would behave based on your experience in similar
activities. Be realistic; this instrument is designed to help you tailor your learning
to your specific needs. After you have completed the survey, the scoring key at the
end of the chapter will help you generate an overall profile of your management skill
strengths and weaknesses.
Step 2: Get copies of the Associates’ version of this instrument from your instructor. An
alternate version has been provided in the Instructor’s Manual that uses “he” or “she”
instead of “I” in the questions. Give copies to at least three other people who know you
well or who have observed you in a situation in which you have had to lead or manage
others. Those people should complete the instrument by rating your behavior. Bring the
completed surveys back to class and compare: (1) your own ratings to your associates’
ratings, (2) your associates’ ratings to the ratings received by others in the class, and (3)
the ratings you received to those of a national norm group.
Subsections of this instrument appear in each chapter throughout the book.
Rating Scale
1 strongly disagree
2 disagree
3 slightly disagree
4 slightly agree
5 agree
6 strongly agree
In regard to my level of self-knowledge:
1. I seek information about my strengths and weaknesses from others as a basis for
2. In order to improve, I am willing to be self-disclosing to others (that is, to share my
beliefs and feelings).
3. I am very much aware of my preferred style in gathering information and making
4. I have a good sense of how I cope with situations that are ambiguous and
5. I have a well-developed set of personal standards and principles that guide my
When faced with stressful or time-pressured situations:
6. I use effective time-management methods such as keeping track of my time, making to-do lists, and prioritizing tasks.
7. I frequently affirm my priorities so that less important things don’t drive out more
important things.
8. I maintain a program of regular exercise for fitness.
9. I maintain an open, trusting relationship with someone with whom I can share my
10. I know and practice several temporary relaxation techniques such as deep breathing and muscle relaxation.
11. I maintain balance in my life by pursuing a variety of interests outside of work.
When I approach a typical, routine problem:
12. I state clearly and explicitly what the problem is. I avoid trying to solve it until
I have defined it.
13. I always generate more than one alternative solution to the problem, instead of
identifying only one obvious solution.
14. I keep steps in the problem-solving process distinct; that is, I define the problem
before proposing alternative solutions, and I generate alternatives before selecting
a single solution.
When faced with a complex or difficult problem that does not have an easy solution:
15. I try out several definitions of the problem. I don’t limit myself to just one way to
define it.
16. I try to unfreeze my thinking by asking lots of questions about the nature of the
problem before considering ways to solve it.
17. I try to think about the problem from both the left (logical) side of my brain and
the right (intuitive) side of my brain.
18. I do not evaluate the merits of an alternative solution to the problem before I have
generated a list of alternatives. That is, I avoid deciding on a solution until I have
developed many possible solutions.
19. I have some specific techniques that I use to help develop creative and innovative
solutions to problems.
When trying to foster more creativity and innovation among those with whom I work:
20. I make sure there are divergent points of view represented or expressed in every
complex problem-solving situation.
21. I try to acquire information from individuals outside the problem-solving group
who will be affected by the decision, mainly to determine their preferences and
22. I try to provide recognition not only to those who come up with creative ideas (the
idea champions) but also to those who support others’ ideas (supporters) and who
provide resources to implement them (orchestrators).
23. I encourage informed rule-breaking in pursuit of creative solutions.
In situations where I have to provide negative feedback or offer corrective advice:
24. I am able to help others recognize and define their own problems when I counsel them.
25. I am clear about when I should coach someone and when I should provide counseling instead.
26. When I give feedback to others, I avoid referring to personal characteristics and
focus on problems or solutions instead.
27. When I try to correct someone’s behavior, our relationship is almost always
28. I am descriptive in giving negative feedback to others. That is, I objectively
describe events, their consequences, and my feelings about them.
29. I take responsibility for my statements and point of view by using, for example,
“I have decided” instead of “They have decided.”
30. I strive to identify some area of agreement in a discussion with someone who has a
different point of view.
31. I don’t talk down to those who have less power or less information than I.
32. When discussing someone’s problem, I usually respond with a reply that indicates
understanding rather than advice.
In a situation where it is important to obtain more power:
33. I always put forth more effort and take more initiative than expected in my work.
34. I am continually upgrading my skills and knowledge.
35. I strongly support organizational ceremonial events and activities.
36. I form a broad network of relationships with people throughout the organization at
all levels.
37. In my work I consistently strive to generate new ideas, initiate new activities, and
minimize routine tasks.
38. I consistently send personal notes to others when they accomplish something
significant or when I pass along important information to them.
39. I refuse to bargain with individuals who use high-pressure negotiation tactics.
40. I always avoid using threats or demands to impose my will on others.
When another person needs to be motivated:
41. I always determine if the person has the necessary resources and support to
succeed in a task.
42. I use a variety of rewards to reinforce exceptional performances.
43. I design task assignments to make them interesting and challenging.
44. I make sure the person gets timely feedback from those affected by task performance.
45. I always help the person establish performance goals that are challenging, specific,
and time bound.
46. Only as a last resort do I attempt to reassign or release a poorly performing individual.
47. I consistently discipline when effort is below expectations and capabilities.
48. I make sure that people feel fairly and equitably treated.
49. I provide immediate compliments and other forms of recognition for meaningful
When I see someone doing something that needs correcting:
50. I avoid making personal accusations and attributing self-serving motives to the
other person.
51. I encourage two-way interaction by inviting the respondent to express his or her
perspective and to ask questions.
52. I make a specific request, detailing a more acceptable option.
When someone complains about something I’ve done:
53. I show genuine concern and interest, even when I disagree.
54. I seek additional information by asking questions that provide specific and descriptive information.
55. I ask the other person to suggest more acceptable behaviors.
When two people are in conflict and I am the mediator:
56. I do not take sides but remain neutral.
57. I help the parties generate multiple alternatives.
58. I help the parties find areas on which they agree.
In situations where I have an opportunity to engage people in accomplishing work:
59. I help people feel competent in their work by recognizing and celebrating their
small successes.
60. I provide regular feedback and needed support.
61. I try to provide all the information that people need to accomplish their tasks.
62. I highlight the important impact that a person’s work will have.
When engaging others in work:
63. I specify clearly the results I desire.
64. I specify clearly the level of initiative I want others to take (for example, wait for
directions, do part of the task and then report, do the whole task and then report,
and so forth).
65. I allow participation by those accepting assignments regarding when and how
work will be done.
66. I avoid upward delegation by asking people to recommend solutions, rather than
merely asking for advice or answers, when a problem is encountered.
67. I follow up and maintain accountability for delegated tasks on a regular basis.
When I am in the role of leader in a team:
68. I know how to establish credibility and influence among team members.
69. I am clear and consistent about what I want to achieve.
70. I build a common base of agreement in the team before moving forward with task
71. I articulate a clear, motivating vision of what the team can achieve along with
specific short-term goals.
When I am in the role of team member:
72. I know a variety of ways to facilitate task accomplishment in the team.
73. I know a variety of ways to help build strong relationships and cohesion among
team members.
When I desire to make my team perform well, regardless of whether I am a leader or member:
74. I am knowledgeable about the different stages of team development experienced
by most teams.
75. I help the team avoid groupthink by making sure that sufficient diversity of opinions is expressed in the team.
76. I can diagnose and capitalize on my team’s core competencies, or unique strengths.
77. I encourage the team to achieve dramatic breakthrough innovations as well as
small continuous improvements.
When I am in a position to lead change:
78. I create positive energy in others when I interact with them.
79. I emphasize a higher purpose or meaning associated with the change I am leading.
80. I express gratitude frequently and conspicuously, even for small acts.
81. I emphasize building on strengths, not just overcoming weaknesses.
82. I use a lot more positive comments than negative comments.
83. When I communicate a vision, I capture people’s hearts as well as their heads.
84. I know how to get people to commit to my vision of positive change.
What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager?
The purpose of this exercise is to help you get a firsthand picture of the role of a manager
and the skills required to perform that job successfully.
Your assignment is to interview at least three managers who are employed full-time.
You should use the questions below in your interviews, plus use others that you think might
help you identify effective management skills. The purpose of these interviews is to give you
a chance to learn about critical managerial skills from those who have to use them.
Please treat the interviews as confidential. The names of the individuals do not matter—
only their opinions, perceptions, and behaviors. Assure the managers that no one will be able
to identify them from their responses. Keep written notes of your interviews. These notes
should be as detailed as possible so you can reconstruct the interviews later. Be sure to keep a
record of each person’s job title and a brief description of his or her organization.
1. Please describe a typical day at work. What do you do all day?
2. What are the most critical problems you face as a manager?
3. What are the most critical skills needed to be a successful manager in your line
of work?
4. What are the major reasons managers fail in positions like yours?
5. What are the outstanding skills or abilities of other effective managers you have
6. If you had to train someone to replace you in your current job, what key abilities
would you focus on?
7. On a scale of 1 (very rarely) to 5 (constantly), can you rate the extent to which
you use the following skills or behaviors during your workday?
________ Managing personal
time and stress
________ Facilitating group decision
________ Creative problem solving
________ articulating an
energizing vision
________ Managing conflict
________ gaining and using power
________ delegating
________ active listening
________ Holding interviews
________ Building teams
and teamwork
________ Conducting meetings
________ Fostering continuous
improvement and quality
________ Making analytical decisions
________ using interpersonal
communication skills
________ Motivating others
________ Capitalizing on your
________ Facilitating organizational
________ setting specific goals and
________ empowering others
________ giving speeches or
________ defining and/or solving
complex problems
________ negotiating
SSS Software In-Basket Exercise
NOTE: The SSS Software exercise is used with permission. Copyright © 1995 by Susan
Schor, Joseph Seltzer, and James Smither. All rights reserved.
One way to assess your own strengths and weaknesses in management skills is to
engage in an actual managerial work experience. The following exercise gives you a realistic glimpse of the tasks faced regularly by practicing managers. Complete the exercise,
and then compare your own decisions and actions with those of classmates.
SSS Software designs and develops customized software for businesses. It also integrates this software with the customer’s existing systems and provides system maintenance. SSS Software has customers in the following industries: airlines, automotive,
finance/banking, health/hospital, consumer products, electronics, and government.
The company has also begun to generate important international clients. These include
the European Airbus consortium and a consortium of banks and financial firms based
in Kenya.
SSS Software has grown rapidly since its inception eight years ago. Its revenue,
net income, and earnings per share have all been above the industry average for the
past several years. However, competition in this technologically sophisticated field has
grown very rapidly. Recently, it has become more difficult to compete for major contracts.
Moreover, although SSS Software’s revenue and net income continue to grow, the rate of
growth declined during the last fiscal year.
SSS Software’s 250 employees are divided into several operating divisions with
employees at four levels: Nonmanagement, Technical/Professional, Managerial, and
Executive. Nonmanagement employees take care of the clerical and facilities support
functions. The Technical/Professional staff performs the core technical work for the firm.
Most Managerial employees are group managers who supervise a team of Technical/
Professional employees working on a project for a particular customer. Staff who work in
specialized areas such as finance, accounting, human resources, nursing, and law are also
considered Managerial employees. The Executive level includes the 12 highest-ranking
employees at SSS Software. An organization chart in Figure 3 illustrates SSS Software’s
structure. There is also an Employee Classification Report that lists the number of employees at each level of the organization.
In this exercise, you will play the role of Chris Perillo, Vice President of Operations
for Health and Financial Services. You learned last Wednesday, October 13, that your
predecessor, Michael Grant, had resigned and gone to Universal Business Solutions, Inc.
You were offered his former job, and you accepted it. Previously, you were the Group
Manager for a team of 15 software developers assigned to work on the Airbus consortium
project in the Airline Services Division. You spent all of Thursday, Friday, and most of the
weekend finishing up parts of the project, briefing your successor, and preparing for an
interim report you will deliver in Paris on October 21.
It is now 7:00 a.m. Monday and you are in your new office. You have arrived at work
early so you can spend the next two hours reviewing material in your in-basket (including
some memos and messages to Michael Grant), as well as your voicemail and e-mail. Your
daily planning book indicates that you have no appointments today or tomorrow but will
have to catch a plane for Paris early Wednesday morning. You have a full schedule for the
remainder of the week and all of next week.
During the next two hours, review all the material in your in-basket, as well as your voicemail and e-mail. Take only two hours. Using the response form below as a model, indicate
how you want to respond to each item (that is, via letter/memo, e-mail, phone/voicemail,
Michelle Harrison
Armand Marke
Group # 8
Marcus Harper
Group #7
Janice Ramos
Sharon Shapiro
Group #6
John Small
Jason Means
Public Relations
Hal Harris
Group #5
Mark McIntyre
Ian Herman
Hamilton Mason
Group #4
Leo Jones
Admin. Services
Jason Hanson
Fred Ferris
V.P. Operations
Group #3
William Chen
V.P. Operations
Cons. Prod. &
Elec. Services
A. J. Itaki
Group #2
Wanda Manners
Michael Grant
Health & Fin.
V.P. Operations
Paula Sprague
Group #1
Robert Miller
V.P. Operations
Howard Smith
President & CEO
Roger Steiner
Partial Organization Chart of Health and Financial Services Division
V.P. Operations
Airline Services
James Jordan
Figure 3
or personal meeting). If you decide not to respond to an item, check “no response” on the
response form. All your responses must be written on the response forms. Write your precise, detailed response (do not merely jot down a few notes). For example, you might draft
a memo or write out a message that you will deliver via phone/voicemail. You may also
decide to meet with an individual (or individuals) during the limited time available on your
calendar today or tomorrow. If so, prepare an agenda for a personal meeting and list your
goals for the meeting. As you read through the items, you may occasionally observe some
information that you think is relevant and want to remember (or attend to in the future)
but that you decide not to include in any of your responses to employees. Write down such
information on a sheet of paper titled “note to self.”
Sample Response Form
Relates to:
Memo # ______
e-mail # ______
Voicemail # ______
Response form:
______ letter/Memo
______ Meet with person (when, where)
______ e-mail
______ note to self
______ phone call/Voicemail
______ no response
All Employees
Roger Steiner, Chief Executive Officer
October 15
I am pleased to announce that Chris Perillo has been appointed as Vice President of
Operations for Health and Financial Services. Chris will immediately assume responsibility for all operations previously managed by Michael Grant. Chris will have end-to-end
responsibility for the design, development, integration, and maintenance of custom
software for the health and finance/banking industries. This responsibility includes all
technical, financial, and staffing issues. Chris will also manage our program of software
support and integration for the recently announced merger of three large health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Chris will be responsible for our recently announced
project with a consortium of banks and financial firms operating in Tanzania. This project
represents an exciting opportunity for us, and Chris’s background seems ideally suited
to the task.
Chris comes to this position with an undergraduate degree in Computer Science from
the California Institute of Technology and an M.B.A. from the University of Virginia.
Chris began as a member of our technical/professional staff six years ago and has
most recently served for three years as a Group Manager supporting domestic an…
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